Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882). The Complete Works. 1904. Vol. VII. Society and Solitude: Twelve Chapters
O DAY of days when we can read! The reader and the book,either without the other is naught.
THAT book is good
Which puts me in a working mood.
Unless to Thought be added Will
Apollo is an imbecile.
IT1 is easy to accuse books, and bad ones are easily found; and the best are but records, and not the things recorded; and certainly there is dilettanteism enough, and books that are merely neutral and do nothing for us. In Platos Gorgias, Socrates says: The shipmaster walks in a modest garb near the sea, after bringing his passengers from Ægina or from Pontus; not thinking he has done anything extraordinary, and certainly knowing that his passengers are the same and in no respect better than when he took them on board. So is it with books, for the most part: they work no redemption in us. The bookseller might certainly know that his customers are in no respect better for the purchase and consumption of his wares. The volume is dear at a dollar, and after reading to weariness the lettered backs, we leave the shop with a sigh, and learn, as I did without surprise of a surly bank director, that in bank parlors they estimate all stocks of this kind as rubbish.2
But it is not less true that there are books which are of that importance in a mans private experience as to verify for him the fables of Cornelius Agrippa, of Michael Scott,3 or of the old Orpheus of Thrace,books which take rank in our life with parents and lovers and passionate experiences, so medicinal, so stringent, so revolutionary, so authoritative,4books which are the work and the proof of faculties so comprehensive, so nearly equal to the world which they paint, that though one shuts them with meaner ones, he feels his exclusion from them to accuse his way of living.
Consider what you have in the smallest chosen library. A company of the wisest and wittiest men that could be picked out of all civil countries in a thousand years have set in best order the results of their learning and wisdom. The men themselves were hid and inaccessible, solitary, impatient of interruption, fenced by etiquette; but the thought which they did not uncover to their bosom friend is here written out in transparent words to us, the strangers of another age.
We owe to books those general benefits which come from high intellectual action. Thus, I think, we often owe to them the perception of immortality. They impart sympathetic activity to the moral power. Go with mean people and you think life is mean. Then read Plutarch, and the world is a proud place, peopled with men of positive quality, with heroes and demigods standing around us, who will not let us sleep.5 Then, they address the imagination: only poetry inspires poetry. They become the organic culture of the time. College education is the reading of certain books which the common sense of all scholars agrees will represent the science already accumulated. If you know that,for instance in geometry, if you have read Euclid and Laplace,your opinion has some value; if you do not know these, you are not entitled to give any opinion on the subject. Whenever any skeptic or bigot claims to be heard on the questions of intellect and morals, we ask if he is familiar with the books of Plato, where all his pert objections have once for all been disposed of. If not, he has no right to our time. Let him go and find himself answered there.
Meantime the colleges, whilst they provide us with libraries, furnish no professor of books; and I think no chair is so much wanted. In a library we are surrounded by many hundreds of dear friends, but they are imprisoned by an enchanter in these paper and leathern boxes; and though they know us, and have been waiting two, ten, or twenty centuries for us,some of them,and are eager to give us a sign and unbosom themselves, it is the law of their limbo that they must not speak until spoken to; and as the enchanter has dressed them, like battalions of infantry, in coat and jacket of one cut, by the thousand and ten thousand, your chance of hitting on the right one is to be computed by the arithmetical rule of Permutation and Combination,not a choice out of three caskets, but out of half a million caskets, all alike. But it happens in our experience that in this lottery there are at least fifty or a hundred blanks to a prize. It seems then as if some charitable soul, after losing a great deal of time among the false books and alighting upon a few true ones which made him happy and wise, would do a right act in naming those which have been bridges or ships to carry him safely over dark morasses and barren oceans, into the heart of sacred cities, into palaces and temples.6 This would be best done by those great masters of books who from time to time appear,the Fabricii, the Seldens, Magliabecchis, Scaligers, Mirandolas, Bayles, Johnsons, whose eyes sweep the whole horizon of learning.7 But private readers, reading purely for love of the book, would serve us by leaving each the shortest note of what he found.
There are books; and it is practicable to read them, because they are so few. We look over with a sigh the monumental libraries of Paris, of the Vatican and the British Museum. In 1858, the number of printed books in the Imperial Library at Paris was estimated at eight hundred thousand volumes, with an annual increase of twelve thousand volumes; so that the number of printed books extant to-day may easily exceed a million. It is easy to count the number of pages which a diligent man can read in a day, and the number of years which human life in favorable circumstances allows to reading; and to demonstrate that though he should read from dawn till dark, for sixty years, he must die in the first alcoves. But nothing can be more deceptive than this arithmetic, where none but a natural method is really pertinent. I visit occasionally the Cambridge Library, and I can seldom go there without renewing the conviction that the best of it all is already within the four walls of my study at home. The inspection of the catalogue brings me continually back to the few standard writers who are on every private shelf; and to these it can afford only the most slight and casual additions. The crowds and centuries of books are only commentary and elucidation, echoes and weakeners of these few great voices of time.
The best rule of reading will be a method from Nature, and not a mechanical one of hours and pages. It holds each student to a pursuit of his native aim, instead of a desultory miscellany. Let him read what is proper to him, and not waste his memory on a crowd of mediocrities. As whole nations have derived their culture from a single book,as the Bible has been the literature as well as the religion of large portions of Europe; as Hafiz was the eminent genius of the Persians, Confucius of the Chinese, Cervantes of the Spaniards; so, perhaps, the human mind would be a gainer if all the secondary writers were lost,say, in England, all but Shakspeare, Milton and Bacon,through the profounder study so drawn to those wonderful minds. With this pilot of his own genius, let the student read one, or let him read many, he will read advantageously. Dr. Johnson said: Whilst you stand deliberating which book your son shall read first, another boy has read both: read anything five hours a day, and you will soon be learned.
Nature is much our friend in this matter. Nature is always clarifying her water and her wine. No filtration can be so perfect. She does the same thing by books as by her gases and plants. There is always a selection in writers, and then a selection from the selection. In the first place, all books that get fairly into the vital air of the world were written by the successful class, by the affirming and advancing class, who utter what tens of thousands feel though they cannot say.8 There has already been a scrutiny and choice from many hundreds of young pens before the pamphlet or political chapter which you read in a fugitive journal comes to your eye. All these are young adventurers, who produce their performance to the wise ear of Time, who sits and weighs, and, ten years hence, out of a million of pages reprints one. Again it is judged, it is winnowed by all the winds of opinion, and what terrific selection has not passed on it before it can be reprinted after twenty years;and reprinted after a century!it is as if Minos and Rhadamanthus had indorsed the writing. T is therefore an economy of time to read old and famed books. Nothing can be preserved which is not good; and I know before-hand that Pindar, Martial, Terence, Galen, Kepler, Galileo, Bacon, Erasmus, More, will be superior to the average intellect. In contemporaries, it is not so easy to distinguish betwixt notoriety and fame.9
Be sure then to read no mean books. Shun the spawn of the press on the gossip of the hour. Do not read what you shall learn, without asking, in the street and the train. Dr. Johnson said he always went into stately shops; and good travellers stop at the best hotels; for though they cost more, they do not cost much more, and there is the good company and the best information.10 In like manner the scholar knows that the famed books contain, first and last, the best thoughts and facts. Now and then, by rarest luck, in some foolish Grub Street is the gem we want. But in the best circles is the best information. If you should transfer the amount of your reading day by day from the newspaper to the standard authorsBut who dare speak of such a thing?
The three practical rules, then, which I have to offer, are,1. Never read any book that is not a year old. 2. Never read any but famed books. 3. Never read any but what you like; or, in Shakspeares phrase,
Montaigne says, Books are a languid pleasure; but I find certain books vital and spermatic, not leaving the reader what he was: he shuts the book a richer man. I would never willingly read any others than such. And I will venture, at the risk of inditing a list of old primers and grammars, to count the few books which a superficial reader must thankfully use.
Of the old Greek books, I think there are five which we cannot spare:12 1. Homer, who in spite of Pope and all the learned uproar of centuries, has really the true fire and is good for simple minds, is the true and adequate germ of Greece, and occupies that place as history which nothing can supply. It holds through all literature that our best history is still poetry. It is so in Hebrew, in Sanskrit and in Greek. English history is best known through Shakspeare; how much through Merlin, Robin Hood and the Scottish ballads!the German, through the Nibelungenlied;the Spanish, through the Cid. Of Homer, George Chapmans is the heroic translation, though the most literal prose version is the best of all. 2. Herodotus, whose history contains inestimable anecdotes, which brought it with the learned into a sort of disesteem; but in these days, when it is found that what is most memorable of history is a few anecdotes, and that we need not be alarmed though we should find it not dull, it is regaining credit. 3. Æschylus, the grandest of the three tragedians, who has given us under a thin veil the first plantation of Europe. The Prometheus is a poem of the like dignity and scope as the Book of Job, or the Norse Edda.13 4. Of Plato I hesitate to speak, lest there should be no end. You find in him that which you have already found in Homer, now ripened to thought,the poet converted to a philosopher, with loftier strains of musical wisdom than Homer reached; as if Homer were the youth and Plato the finished man; yet with no less security of bold and perfect song, when he cares to use it, and with some harp-strings fetched from a higher heaven. He contains the future, as he came out of the past. In Plato you explore modern Europe in its causes and seed,all that in thought, which the history of Europe embodies or has yet to embody. The well-informed man finds himself anticipated. Plato is up with him too. Nothing has escaped him. Every new crop in the fertile harvest of reform, every fresh suggestion of modern humanity, is there. If the student wish to see both sides, and justice done to the man of the world, pitiless exposure of pedants, and the supremacy of truth and the religious sentiment, he shall be contented also.14 Why should not young men be educated on this book? It would suffice for the tuition of the race; to test their understanding, and to express their reason. Here is that which is so attractive to all men,the literature of aristocracy shall I call it?the picture of the best persons, sentiments and manners, by the first master, in the best times; portraits of Pericles, Alcibiades, Crito, Prodicus, Protagoras, Anaxagoras and Socrates, with the lovely background of the Athenian and suburban landscape. Or who can overestimate the images with which Plato has enriched the minds of men, and which pass like bullion in the currency of all nations? Read the Phædo, the Protagoras, the Phædrus, the Timæus, the Republic and the Apology of Socrates.15 5. Plutarch cannot be spared from the smallest library; first because he is so readable, which is much; then that he is medicinal and invigorating. The lives of Cimon, Lycurgus, Alexander, Demosthenes, Phocion, Marcellus and the rest, are what history has of best. But this book has taken care of itself, and the opinion of the world is expressed in the innumerable cheap editions, which make it as accessible as a newspaper. But Plutarchs Morals is less known, and seldom reprinted. Yet such a reader as I am writing to can as ill spare it as the Lives. He will read in it the essays On the Dæmon of Socrates, On Isis and Osiris, On Progress in Virtue, On Garrulity, On Love; and thank anew the art of printing and the cheerful domain of ancient thinking. Plutarch charms by the facility of his associations; so that it signifies little where you open his book, you find yourself at the Olympian tables. His memory is like the Isthmian Games, where all that was excellent in Greece was assembled; and you are stimulated and recruited by lyric verses, by philosophic sentiments, by the forms and behavior of heroes, by the worship of the gods, and by the passing of fillets, parsley and laurel wreaths, chariots, armor, sacred cups and utensils of sacrifice. An inestimable trilogy of ancient social pictures are the three Banquets respectively of Plato, Xenophon and Plutarch. Plutarchs has the least approach to historical accuracy; but the meeting of the Seven Wise Masters is a charming portraiture of ancient manners and discourse, and is as clear as the voice of a fife, and entertaining as a French novel. Xenophons delineation of Athenian manners is an accessory to Plato, and supplies traits of Socrates; whilst Platos has merits of every kind,being a repertory of the wisdom of the ancients on the subject of love; a picture of a feast of wits, not less descriptive than Aristophanes; and, lastly, containing that ironical eulogy of Socrates which is the source from which all the portraits of that philosopher current in Europe have been drawn.
Of course a certain outline should be obtained of Greek history, in which the important moments and persons can be rightly set down; but the shortest is the best, and if one lacks stomach for Mr. Grotes voluminous annals, the old slight and popular summary of Goldsmith or of Gillies will serve. The valuable part is the age of Pericles and the next generation. And here we must read the Clouds of Aristophanes, and what more of that master we gain appetite for, to learn our way in the streets of Athens, and to know the tyranny of Aristophanes, requiring more genius and sometimes not less cruelty than belonged to the official commanders.16 Aristophanes is now very accessible, with much valuable commentary, through the labors of Mitchell and Cartwright. An excellent popular book is J. A. St. Johns Ancient Greece; the Life and Letters of Niebuhr, even more than his Lectures, furnish leading views; and Winckelmann, a Greek born out of due time, has become essential to an intimate knowledge of the Attic genius. The secret of the recent histories in German and in English is the discovery, owed first to Wolff and later to Boeckh, that the sincere Greek history of that period must be drawn from Demosthenes, especially from the business orations; and from the comic poets.
If we come down a little by natural steps from the master to the disciples, we have, six or seven centuries later, the Platonists, who also cannot be skipped,Plotinus, Porphyry, Proclus, Synesius, Jamblichus. Of Jamblichus the Emperor Julian said that he was posterior to Plato in time, not in genius.17 Of Plotinus, we have eulogies by Porphyry and Longinus, and the favor of the Emperor Gallienus, indicating the respect he inspired among his contemporaries. If any one who had read with interest the Isis and Osiris of Plutarch should then read a chapter called Providence, by Synesius, translated into English by Thomas Taylor, he will find it one of the majestic remains of literature, and, like one walking in the noblest of temples, will conceive new gratitude to his fellow men, and a new estimate of their nobility. The imaginative scholar will find few stimulants to his brain like these writers.18 He has entered the Elysian Fields; and the grand and pleasing figures of gods and dæmons and dæmoniacal men, of the azonic and the aquatic gods, dæmons with fulgid eyes, and all the rest of the Platonic rhetoric, exalted a little under the African sun, sail before his eyes. The acolyte has mounted the tripod over the cave at Delphi; his heart dances, his sight is quickened. These guides speak of the gods with such depth and with such pictorial details, as if they had been bodily present at the Olympian feasts. The reader of these books makes new acquaintance with his own mind; new regions of thought are opened. Jamblichuss Life of Pythagoras works more directly on the will than the others; since Pythagoras was eminently a practical person, the founder of a school of ascetics and socialists, a planter of colonies, and nowise a man of abstract studies alone.19
The respectable and sometimes excellent translations of Bohns Library have done for literature what railroads have done for internal intercourse. I do not hesitate to read all the books I have named, and all good books, in translations. What is really best in any book is translatable,any real insight or broad human sentiment. Nay, I observe that, in our Bible, and other books of lofty moral tone, it seems easy and inevitable to render the rhythm and music of the original into phrases of equal melody. The Italians have a fling at translators,i traditori traduttori; but I thank them. I rarely read any Latin, Greek, German, Italian, sometimes not a French book, in the original, which I can procure in a good version. I like to be beholden to the great metropolitan English speech, the sea which receives tributaries from every region under heaven. I should as soon think of swimming across Charles River when I wish to go to Boston, as of reading all my books in originals when I have them rendered for me in my mother tongue.
For history there is great choice of ways to bring the student through early Rome. If he can read Livy, he has a good book; but one of the short English compends, some Goldsmith or Ferguson, should be used, that will place in the cycle the bright stars of Plutarch. The poet Horace is the eye of the Augustan age; Tacitus, the wisest of historians; and Martial will give him Roman manners,and some very bad ones,in the early days of the Empire: but Martial must be read, if read at all, in his own tongue. These will bring him to Gibbon, who will take him in charge and convey him with abundant entertainment downwith notice of all remarkable objects on the waythrough fourteen hundred years of time. He cannot spare Gibbon, with his vast reading, with such wit and continuity of mind, that, though never profound, his book is one of the conveniences of civilization, like the new railroad from ocean to ocean,and, I think, will be sure to send the reader to his Memoirs of Himself, and the Extracts from my Journal, and Abstracts of my Readings, which will spur the laziest scholar to emulation of his prodigious performance.20
Now having our idler safe down as far as the fall of Constantinople in 1453, he is in very good courses; for here are trusty hands waiting for him. The cardinal facts of European history are soon learned. There is Dantes poem, to open the Italian Republics of the Middle Age; Dantes Vita Nuova, to explain Dante and Beatrice;21 and Boccaccios Life of Dante, a great man to describe a greater. To help us, perhaps a volume or two of M. Sismondis Italian Republics will be as good as the entire sixteen. When we come to Michel Angelo, his Sonnets and Letters must be read, with his Life by Vasari, or, in our day, by Herman Grimm.22 For the Church and the Feudal Institution, Mr. Hallams Middle Ages will furnish, if superficial, yet readable and conceivable outlines.
The Life of the Emperor Charles V., by the useful Robertson, is still the key of the following age.23 Ximenes, Columbus, Loyola, Luther, Erasmus, Melanchthon, Francis I., Henry VIII., Elizabeth, and Henry IV. of France, are his contemporaries. It is a time of seeds and expansions, whereof our recent civilization is the fruit.
If now the relations of England to European affairs bring him to British ground, he is arrived at the very moment when modern history takes new proportions. He can look back for the legends and mythology to the Younger Edda and the Heimskringla of Snorro Sturleson, to Mallets Northern Antiquities, to Elliss Metrical Romances, to Assers Life of Alfred and Venerable Bede, and to the researches of Sharon Turner and Palgrave. Hume will serve him for an intelligent guide, and in the Elizabethan era he is at the richest period of the English mind, with the chief men of action and of thought which that nation has produced, and with a pregnant future before him. Here he has Shakspeare, Spenser,24 Sidney, Raleigh, Bacon, Chapman, Jonson, Ford, Beaumont and Fletcher, Herbert, Donne,25 Herrick; and Milton, Marvell and Dryden, not long after.
In reading history, he is to prefer the history of individuals. He will not repent the time he gives to Bacon,not if he read the Advancement of Learning, the Essays, the Novum Organum, the History of Henry VII., and then all the Letters (especially those to the Earl of Devonshire, explaining the Essex business), and all but his Apophthegms.26
The task is aided by the strong mutual light which these men shed on each other. Thus, the works of Ben Jonson are a sort of hoop to bind all these fine persons together, and to the land to which they belong. He has written verses to or on all his notable contemporaries; and what with so many occasional poems, and the portrait sketches in his Discoveries, and the gossiping record of his opinions in his conversations with Drummond of Hawthornden, he has really illustrated the England of his time, if not to the same extent yet much in the same way, as Walter Scott has celebrated the persons and places of Scotland. Walton, Chapman, Herrick and Sir Henry Wotton write also to the times.
Among the best books are certain Autobiographies; as, St. Augustines Confessions; Benvenuto Cellinis Life; Montaignes Essays; Lord Herbert of Cherburys Memoirs; Memoirs of the Cardinal de Retz; Rousseaus Confessions; Linnæuss Diary; Gibbons, Humes, Franklins, Burnss, Alfieris, Goethes and Haydons Autobiographies.
Another class of books closely allied to these, and of like interest, are those which may be called Table-Talks: of which the best are Saadis27 Gulistan; Luthers Table-Talk; Aubreys Lives; Spences anecdotes; Seldens Table-Talk; Boswells Life of Johnson; Eckermanns Conversations with Goethe; Coleridges Table-Talk; and Hazlitts Life of Northcote.
There is a class whose value I should designate as Favorites: such as Froissarts Chronicles; Southeys Chronicle of the Cid; Cervantes; Sullys Memoirs; Rabelais; Montaigne; Izaak Walton; Evelyn; Sir Thomas Browne; Aubrey; Sterne; Horace Walpole; Lord Clarendon; Doctor Johnson; Burke, shedding floods of light on his times; Lamb; Landor; and De Quincey;a list, of course, that may easily be swelled, as dependent on individual caprice. Many men are as tender and irritable as lovers in reference to these predilections. Indeed, a mans library is a sort of harem, and I observe that tender readers have a great pudency in showing their books to a stranger.
The annals of bibliography afford many examples of the delirious extent to which book-fancying can go, when the legitimate delight in a book is transferred to a rare edition or to a manuscript. This mania reached its height about the beginning of the present century. For an autograph of Shakspeare one hundred and fifty-five guineas were given. In May, 1812, the library of the Duke of Roxburgh was sold. The sale lasted forty-two days,we abridge the story from Dibdin,and among the many curiosities was a copy of Boccaccio published by Valdarfer, at Venice, in 1471; the only perfect copy of this edition. Among the distinguished company which attended the sale were the Duke of Devonshire, Earl Spencer, and the Duke of Marlborough, then Marquis of Blandford. The bid stood at five hundred guineas. A thousand guineas, said Earl Spencer: And ten, added the Marquis. You might hear a pin drop. All eyes were bent on the bidders. Now they talked apart, now ate a biscuit, now made a bet, but without the least thought of yielding one to the other. But to pass over some details,the contest proceeded until the Marquis said, Two thousand pounds. Earl Spencer bethought him like a prudent general of useless bloodshed and waste of powder, and had paused a quarter of a minute, when Lord Althorp with long steps came to his side, as if to bring his father a fresh lance to renew the fight. Father and son whispered together, and Earl Spencer exclaimed, Two thousand two hundred and fifty pounds! An electric shock went through the assembly. And ten, quietly added the Marquis. There ended the strife. Ere Evans let the hammer fall, he paused; the ivory instrument swept the air; the spectators stood dumb, when the hammer fell. The stroke of its fall sounded on the farthest shores of Italy. The tap of that hammer was heard in the libraries of Rome, Milan and Venice. Boccaccio stirred in his sleep of five hundred years, and M. Van Praet groped in vain among the royal alcoves in Paris, to detect a copy of the famed Valdarfer Boccaccio.
Another class I distinguish by the term Vocabularies. Burtons Anatomy of Melancholy is a book of great learning. To read it is like reading in a dictionary. T is an inventory to remind us how many classes and species of facts exist, and, in observing into what strange and multiplex byways learning has strayed, to infer our opulence. Neither is a dictionary a bad book to read. There is no cant in it, no excess of explanation, and it is full of suggestion,the raw material of possible poems and histories. Nothing is wanting but a little shuffling, sorting, ligature and cartilage. Out of a hundred examples, Cornelius Agrippa On the Vanity of Arts and Sciences is a specimen of that scribatiousness which grew to be the habit of the gluttonous readers of his time. Like the modern Germans, they read a literature while other mortals read a few books. They read voraciously, and must disburden themselves; so they take any general topic, as Melancholy, or Praise of Science, or Praise of Folly, and write and quote without method or end. Now and then out of that affluence of their learning comes a fine sentence from Theophrastus, or Seneca, or Boëthius, but no high method, no inspiring efflux. But one cannot afford to read for a few sentences; they are good only as strings of suggestive words.
There is another class, more needful to the present age, because the currents of custom run now in another direction and leave us dry on this side;I mean the Imaginative.28 A right metaphysics should do justice to the coördinate powers of Imagination, Insight, Understanding and Will. Poetry, with its aids of Mythology and Romance, must be well allowed for an imaginative creature. Men are ever lapsing into a beggarly habit, wherein everything that is not ciphering, that is, which does not serve the tyrannical animal, is hustled out of sight. Our orators and writers are of the same poverty, and in this rag-fair neither the Imagination, the great awakening power, nor the Morals, creative of genius and of men, are addressed. But though orator and poet be of this hunger party, the capacities remain. We must have symbols. The child asks you for a story, and is thankful for the poorest. It is not poor to him, but radiant with meaning. The man asks for a novel,that is, asks leave for a few hours to be a poet, and to paint things as they ought to be. The youth asks for a poem. The very dunces wish to go to the theatre. What private heavens can we not open, by yielding to all the suggestion of rich music! We must have idolatries, mythologies,some swing and verge for the creative power lying coiled and cramped here, driving ardent natures to insanity and crime if it do not find vent. Without the great arts which speak to the sense of beauty, a man seems to me a poor, naked, shivering creature. These are his becoming draperies, which warm and adorn him. Whilst the prudential and economical tone of society starves the imagination, affronted Nature gets such indemnity as she may. The novel is that allowance and frolic the imagination finds. Everything else pins it down, and men flee for redress to Byron, Scott, Disraeli, Dumas, Sand, Balzac, Dickens, Thackeray and Reade.29 Their education is neglected; but the circulating library and the theatre, as well as the trout-fishing, the Notch Mountains, the Adirondack country, the tour to Mont Blanc, to the White Hills and the Ghauts, make such amends as they can.
The imagination infuses a certain volatility and intoxication. It has a flute which sets the atoms of our frame in a dance, like planets; and once so liberated, the whole man reeling drunk to the music, they never quite subside to their old stony state. But what is the imagination? Only an arm or weapon of the interior energy; only the precursor of the reason. And books that treat the old pedantries of the world, our times, places, professions, customs, opinions, histories, with a certain freedom, and distribute things, not after the usages of America and Europe but after the laws of right reason, and with as daring a freedom as we use in dreams, put us on our feet again, enable us to form an original judgment of our duties, and suggest new thoughts for to-morrow.
Lucrezia Floriani, Le Péché de M. Antoine, Jeanne and Consuelo, of George Sand, are great steps from the novel of one termination, which we all read twenty years ago. Yet how far off from life and manners and motives the novel still is! Life lies about us dumb; the day, as we know it, has not yet found a tongue. These stories are to the plots of real life what the figures in La Belle Assemblée, which represent the fashion of the month, are to portraits. But the novel will find the way to our interiors one day, and will not always be the novel of costume merely. I do not think it inoperative now. So much novel-reading cannot leave the young men and maidens untouched; and doubtless it gives some ideal dignity to the day. The young study noble behavior; and as the player in Consuelo insists that he and his colleagues on the boards have taught princes the fine etiquette and strokes of grace and dignity which they practise with so much effect in their villas and among their dependents, so I often see traces of the Scotch or the French novel in the courtesy and brilliancy of young midshipmen, collegians and clerks. Indeed, when one observes how ill and ugly people make their loves and quarrels, t is pity they should not read novels a little more, to import the fine generosities and the clear, firm conduct, which are as becoming in the unions and separations which love effects under shingle roofs as in palaces and among illustrious personages.
In novels the most serious questions are beginning to be discussed. What made the popularity of Jane Eyre, but that a central question was answered in some sort? The question there answered in regard to a vicious marriage will always be treated according to the habit of the party. A person of commanding individualism will answer it as Rochester does,as Cleopatra, as Milton, as George Sand do,magnifying the exception into a rule, dwarfing the world into an exception. A person of less courage, that is of less constitution, will answer as the heroine does,giving way to fate, to conventionalism, to the actual state and doings of men and women.
For the most part, our novel-reading is a passion for results. We admire parks, and high-born beauties, and the homage of drawing-rooms and parliaments. They make us skeptical, by giving prominence to wealth and social position.30
I remember when some peering eyes of boys discovered that the oranges hanging on the boughs of an orange-tree in a gay piazza were tied to the twigs by thread. I fear t is so with the novelists prosperities. Nature has a magic by which she fits the man to his fortunes, by making them the fruit of his character. But the novelist plucks this event here and that fortune there, and ties them rashly to his figures, to tickle the fancy of his readers with a cloying success or scare them with shocks of tragedy. And so, on the whole, t is a juggle. We are cheated into laughter or wonder by feats which only oddly combine acts that we do every day. There is no new element, no power, no furtherance. T is only confectionery, not the raising of new corn. Great is the poverty of their inventions. She was beautiful and he fell in love. Money, and killing, and the Wandering Jew, and persuading the lover that his mistress is betrothed to another, these are the main-springs; new names, but no new qualities in the men and women. Hence the vain endeavor to keep any bit of this fairy gold which has rolled like a brook through our hands. A thousand thoughts awoke; great rainbows seemed to span the sky, a morning among the mountains; but we close the book and not a ray remains in the memory of evening. But this passion for romance, and this disappointment, show how much we need real elevations and pure poetry: that which shall show us, in morning and night, in stars and mountains and in all the plight and circumstance of men, the analogons of our own thoughts, and a like impression made by a just book and by the face of Nature.
If our times are sterile in genius, we must cheer us with books of rich and believing men who had atmosphere and amplitude about them. Every good fable, every mythology, every biography from a religious age, every passage of love, and even philosophy and science, when they proceed from an intellectual integrity and are not detached and critical, have the imaginative element. The Greek fables, the Persian history (Firdusi),31 the Younger Edda of the Scandinavians, the Chronicle of the Cid, the poem of Dante, the Sonnets of Michel Angelo, the English drama of Shakspeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, and Ford, and even the prose of Bacon and Milton,in our time the Ode of Wordsworth, and the poems and the prose of Goethe, have this enlargement, and inspire hope and generous attempts.
There is no room left,and yet I might as well not have begun as to leave out a class of books which are the best: I mean the Bibles of the world, or the sacred books of each nation, which express for each the supreme result of their experience. After the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, which constitute the sacred books of Christendom, these are, the Desatir of the Persians, and the Zoroastrian Oracles; the Vedas and Laws of Menu; the Upanishads, the Vishnu Purana, the Bhagvat Geeta, of the Hindoos; the books of the Buddhists; the Chinese Classic, of four books, containing the wisdom of Confucius and Mencius.32 Also such other books as have acquired a semi-canonical authority in the world, as expressing the highest sentiment and hope of nations. Such are the Hermes Trismegistus, pretending to be Egyptian remains; the Sentences of Epictetus; of Marcus Antoninus; the Vishnu Sarma of the Hindoos; the Gulistan of Saadi; the Imitation of Christ, of Thomas à Kempis; and the Thoughts of Pascal.
All these books are the majestic expressions of the universal conscience, and are more to our daily purpose than this years almanac or this days newspaper. But they are for the closet, and to be read on the bended knee. Their communications are not to be given or taken with the lips and the end of the tongue, but out of the glow of the cheek, and with the throbbing heart. Friendship should give and take, solitude and time brood and ripen, heroes absorb and enact them. They are not to be held by letters printed on a page, but are living characters translatable into every tongue and form of life. I read them on lichens and bark; I watch them on waves on the beach; they fly in birds, they creep in worms; I detect them in laughter and blushes and eye-sparkles of men and women. These are Scriptures which the missionary might well carry over prairie, desert and ocean, to Siberia, Japan, Timbuctoo. Yet he will find that the spirit which is in them journeys faster than he, and greets him on his arrival,was there already long before him. The missionary must be carried by it, and find it there, or he goes in vain. Is there any geography in these things? We call them Asiatic, we call them primeval; but perhaps that is only optical, for Nature is always equal to herself, and there are as good eyes and ears now in the planet as ever were. Only these ejaculations of the soul are uttered one or a few at a time, at long intervals, and it takes millenniums to make a Bible.
These are a few of the books which the old and the later times have yielded us, which will reward the time spent on them. In comparing the number of good books with the shortness of life, many might well be read by proxy, if we had good proxies; and it would be well for sincere young men to borrow a hint from the French Institute and the British Association, and as they divide the whole body into sections, each of which sits upon and reports of certain matters confided to it, so let each scholar associate himself to such persons as he can rely on, in a literary club, in which each shall undertake a single work or series for which he is qualified. For example, how attractive is the whole literature of the Roman de la Rose, the Fabliaux, and the gaie science of the French Troubadours! Yet who in Boston has time for that? But one of our company shall undertake it, shall study and master it, and shall report on it as under oath; shall give us the sincere result as it lies in his mind, adding nothing, keeping nothing back. Another member meantime shall as honestly search, sift and as truly report on British mythology, the Round Table, the histories of Brut, Merlin and Welsh poetry; a third on the Saxon Chronicles, Robert of Gloucester and William of Malmesbury; a fourth, on Mysteries, Early Drama, Gesta Romanorum, Collier, and Dyce, and the Camden Society. Each shall give us his grains of gold, after the washing; and every other shall then decide whether this is a book indispensable to him also.33
Note 1. That the value which Mr. Emerson set on books was a trait that had long characterized the family, the following extract from the will of his ancestor, the founder of Concord, will show: I, Peter Bulkeley, give to my son Edward certain books in my library; 1. Tarnovius on the Minor Prophets. 2. Piscators Commentary. 3. Dr. Owen against the Arminians. 4. Dr. Willet on Exodus & Leviticus. 5. English Annotations. 6. Mr. Ainsworths notes on 5 Books of Moses. To my son Eliazur, a hundred acres of land lying at the near end of the great meadow & 20 acres at the far end. In 1835, when Mr. Emerson had just come back to the ancestral town to live there the life of a scholar, he wrote in his journal a sentence which he later turned for amusement into a rude rhyme:
When shall I be tired of reading?
When the moon is tired of waxing and waning,
When the cloud is tired of raining,
When the sea of ebbing and flowing,
When the grass is weary of growing,
When the planets tire of going,
And when Death is sick of feeding,
Then shall I be tired of reading.
It may be interesting to young people living in the twentieth century to see a letter advising a course of reading which Mr. Emerson wrote when he was twenty-eight years old to Miss Elizabeth Tucker of Derry, New Hampshire, a young girl in her teens, who was a cousin of his first wife.
BOSTON, 1 FEB., 1832.
MY DEAR COUSIN,If it were not true that it is never too late to do right, I should be quite ashamed to send my list of books at such a long distance behind my promise. When I spent so pleasant a day at your house, I thought it would be very easy, and I knew it would be very pleasant, for me to make out a scheme of study for your vacation as soon as I got home. But what to select out of so great a company of leather-jackets and so deservingand then a crowd of things to be doneand withal a Quaker habit of never doing things till their necessary time, in the hope of doing them better, has postponed my letter from day to day and week to week. But so you must never do, my dear Cousin. But for fear you should quite forget your wise adviser, and should be a grown lady and so I should lose the honor of having had any part in your education, I hasten to send you my poor thoughts upon what is good to be read. I make no pretensions to give you a complete course, but only select a few good books of my acquaintancesuch as I think you will like, and such as will serve you. One more preliminary word. Never mind any silly people that try to sneer you out of the love of reading. People are fast outgrowing the old prejudice that a lady ought not to be acquainted with books. It is the display that disgusts; the knowledge that you get from them never disgusts anybody, but is all useful, and has comforted how many hours that would otherwise have been long, dull and lonely. First then you must keep one or two books for the soul always by you, for monitors and angels, lest this world of trifles should run away with you. Such a book is Thomas à Kempiss Imitation of Christ, written by a German monk near four hundred years ago, and needs only a little allowance for a Roman Catholics opinions, to make it express the religious sentiments of every good mind. Then there is a little book I value very much, Scougals Life of God in the Soul of Man. Taylors Holy Dying is a good book. Its author was called the Shakspeare of divines. Selections from Fénelon, by Mrs. Follen. Ware on the Formation of the Christian Character. Sir Thomas Brownes Religion of a Physician. This is a beautiful work lately republished in this town. Youngs Night Thoughts. A friend whom I value very much told Ellen always to keep Young upon her table. But I suppose you will think here are Sunday books enough. Now for History. The American Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge are publishing Müllers Universal History in four duodecimo volumes. It is very much the best of all the General histories and is very easily read. They have yet only printed the first volume. The sketches of Rome and of Greece in it are excellent. Then the most important modern history to be read perhaps is Robertsons Charles V., which is an account of Europe in the most interesting period. I would skip the first volume, which is a general view of Europe, and read the two last. Then you might take up Hume, say at the reign of Elizabeth, which would continue pretty well the line of events. The best history of Europe during the French Revolution is Scotts Life of Napoleon. For the American history, as you happen to live at Derry, N. H., I would read Dr. Belknaps History of the State. It is not only a very good book itself, but will give you a pretty good idea of all the States, their story is so much alike. Mortons New England Memorial is a little book and a pleasing account of the Forefathers. Milmans History of the Jews in the Family Library is a very good book. But what is far more soothing, and never painful, like the history of man, is Natural History in its various parts. The first volume of the American Library of Useful Knowledge (and you must make the Social Library in Derry subscribe for that book) contains Mr. Broughams Discourse upon the advantage and prospects of Science, which is excellent, and Mr. Herschels, which is better. The same Mr. Herschel, son of the famous astronomer, is about to publish a discourse on astronomy which is expected with great interest. Then there is a beautiful book on American birds by Mr. Nuttall (N.s Ornithology) that every one who lives in the country ought to read. I suppose you have read at school Conversations on Chemistry. The Conversations on Vegetable Physiology are just as good. With this class of books I will put the Account of Polar Expeditions, a volume of the Family Library. I suppose to such a formidable list I must add a novel or two, or you would think me very unkind. So I really hope you will read De Vere by the author of Tremaine, and as much Walter Scott and Miss Edgeworth as you please. For Poetry read Milton; if the Paradise Lost tires you, it is so stately, try the minor Poems. Comus, if the Mythology does not make it sound strange, is a beautiful poem and makes one holy to read it. Read Bryants poems. I know you will love them, and Cowper and Thomson, and perhaps (a very large perhaps) Wordsworth. If you do not like poetry, which I suppose you do, the best way to learn is to write some. Now I do not suppose that you will read all these books in a short time, or perhaps at any time, and some of them very probably you have read. I only wanted to fulfil your command, and speak a good word for some valued acquaintance of mine. The best of all ways to make ones reading valuable is to write about it, and so I hope my Cousin Elizabeth has a blank-book where she keeps some record of her thoughts. And if you think my letter very long, why you must bear in mind that once I was a schoolmaster, and I am so proud of my new scholar as to keep her long at my lecture. Make my respectful remembrances to your mother and father and my compliments to your sister.
Your affectionate cousin, R. W. EMERSON.
Of himself he wrote in 1859: I am a natural reader and only a writer in the absence of natural writers. In a true time I should never have written. In his Phi Beta Kappa Address (in Nature, Addresses and Lectures) Mr. Emerson pointed out to the American Scholar the right and the wrong use of books and said, Man Thinking must not be subdued by his instruments. Books are for the scholars idle times. Only in the intervals of direct illumination he may resort to their reflected light. And in Nominalist and Realist (Essays, Second Series) he admits that sometimes he reads even Plato for the lustres, for a mechanical help to the fancy and the imagination. He told a youthful writer only to read to start his team. But in his journal of 1867, after saying that in proportion to your reality of life and perception will be your difficulty of finding yourself expressed in others words or deeds, he interrupts himself,and yetand yetwhen the visions of my books come over me as I sit writing, when the remembrance of some poet comes, I accept it with pure joy, and quit my thinking as sad lumbering work; and hasten to my little heaven, if it is then accessible, as angels might. [back]
Note 2. Mr. Emerson begins this estimate of books in the low tone which he often commends, avoiding superstition concerning them, and this gives opportunity for ascension in the treatment of the theme. In a note-book called Literature, under the heading Skeptical, he wrote: We must not inquire too curiously into the absolute value of literature. Enough that it amuses and exercises us. At least it leaves us where we were. It names things, but does not add things. But in a lecture Some Good Books he decides the matter more cheerfully, and after value of literature the passage goes on thus,yet books are to us angels of entertainment sympathy and provocation. These silent wise, these tractable prophets and singers, who now and then cast their moonlight illumination over solitude, weariness and fallen fortunes. [back]
Note 3. Cornelius Agrippa (14861535), a German scholar, alchemist and reputed magician, who wrote on The Uncertainty and Vanity of the Sciences, and on Occult Philosophy. His magic mirror, in which he showed to the Earl of Surrey his lady-love beyond the seas, it told of in song in Scotts Lay of the Last Minstrel. In the same poem the book of spells, borrowed from the grave at Melrose Abbey of the wizard Michael Scott, plays an important part. MichaelScott lived in the thirteenth century, and had great fame on the Continent as well as in Scotland. He is mentioned by Dante. [back]
Note 4. The following account of the effect of a sentence from one of Emersons books on a Virginian youth is best given in his own language: Fresh from college, now from every career planned by parent or friend I had recoiled: some indefinable impediment barred each usual path . Utterly miserable, self-accused amid sorrowful faces, with no outlook but to be the fettered master of slaves, I was wont to shun the world, with a gun for an apology . So came I on a day [to the banks of the Rappahannock] and reclined on the grass reading in a magazine [Blackwoods] casually brought . The church-bells across the river smote upon a heart discordant with them, at discord with itself. Nature had no meaning, life no promise and no aim. Listlessly turning to the printed page, one sentence caught my eye and held it; one sentence quoted from Emerson, which changed my world and me. A sentence only! I do not repeat it: it might not bear to others what it bore to me: its searching, subtle revelation defies any analysis I can make of its words. All I know is that it was the touch of flame I needed. That day my gun was laid aside to resume no more. [Emerson at Home and Abroad, by Moncure Daniel Conway. Boston: J. R. Osgood & Co., 1882.] The author, who under the new influence sacrificed his inheritance of slaves, and even his fathers blessing, and later, place and influence as a clergyman because of his advocacy of human liberty, said to the editor, But for the reading of that extract from Emerson in a critique in Blackwood on Six American Books, I should be lying in a rebels grave to-day. An Austrian writer on Reading and Culture [Ueber Lesen und Bildung, von Anton E. Schönbach. Gratz, 1882.] in his preface says, It will be noticed how strongly Ralph Waldo Emerson has influenced my entire conception of the matters treated. [back]
Note 5. The following sentence seems to have been in this lecture as first delivered: And Plutarch: if the worlds library were burning, I should fly to save that, with our Bible and Shakspeare and Plato. [back]
Note 6. When in Mr. Emersons later years a book-agent was impertinently recommending to him some new work, he was moved to say, Young man, it is not for you to tell me what to read. I read for other people. He wrote in his journal, In college days Warren Burton used to come to my room, and said he did not like to read and did not remember what he read, but what I read or quoted to him he remembered, and never forgot. [back]
Note 7. Johann Albert Fabricius, the German scholar (16681736), author of the Bibliotheca Latina, Græca, and Ecclesiastica, and Bibliographia Antiquaria. John Selden (15841654), called the great dictator of learning of the English nation, though the author of many learned books, is best known by his Table-Talk. Giovanni Pico, Count of Mirandola (14631494), an Italian of very extraordinary acquirements in languages and philosophy. Joseph Justus Scaliger (15401609), son of a remarkable scholar, though Italian by birth, was educated in France. He became professor of Belles-lettres at Leyden, and surpassed his father in erudition. Antonio Magliabechi (16331714), a Florentine who, though a goldsmiths apprentice, became so eager a scholar that he was appointed by Cosmo III. his librarian. In this capacity he brought to notice many valuable but neglected manuscripts, and he bequeathed to Florence the important library which he had collected. Pierre Bayle (16471706), a French scholar remarkable for his courage and liberality, which virtues cost him in succession his professorships at Sedan and Rotterdam. His noted work is the Dictionnaire historique et critique. [back]
Note 8. Professor Herman Grimm in his first letter to Mr. Emerson, whose writings, then newly read, had greatly stirred him, said, Everywhere I seem to find my own thoughts,even the words in which I would prefer to have expressed them; and later, You write so that every one reading your words must think you had thought of him alone. [back]
Note 9. Journal, 1851. One should dignify and entertain and signalize each journey or adventure by carrying to it a literary masterpiece, and making thorough acquaintance with that, on the way, as, the Figaro of Beaumarchais; the Nuova Vita of Dante; the Bride of Corinth of Goethe; the 47th Proposition of Euclid; ode of Horace or of Hafiz, and so on; Clouds of Aristophanes, a Trilogy of Æschylus. [back]
Note 10. This suggests the advice to the Artist in the quatrain of that name.
Note 12. Mr. Emerson wrote thus of his pleasure in Greek mythology and poetry, in the journal of 1855: A convertible proverb, It is Greek to him. These Eastern story-tellers whose oily tongues turn day into night and night into day, who lap their hearers in a sweet drunkenness of fancy, so that they forget the taste of meat! [back]
Note 13. Mr. Emerson said to a young scholar, I am glad you have so many of the Greek Tragedies. Read them largely and swiftly in translation to get their movement and flow; and then a little in the original every day. For the Greek is the fountain of language. The Latin has a definite shore-line, but the Greek is without bounds. [back]
Note 14. Read in Plato and you shall find Christian dogmas, and not only so, but stumble on our evangelical phrases.Quotation and Originality, Letters and Social Aims. [back]
Note 15. Mr. Emersons estimate of Plato may be read in full in Representative Men and of Plutarch in the essay of that name in Lectures and Biographical Sketches. [back]
Note 16. Mr. Emerson himself never enjoyed Aristophanes, but read the comedies for such light as they gave on the age and country. Journal, 1865. I am delighted to-day, in reading Schweglers account of Socrates, to have justice done to Aristophanes. The rogue gets his dues. [back]
Note 17. In a lecture given in Boston in 1861, called Some Good Books, Mr. Emerson said: What vitality has the Platonic Philosophy! I remember I expected a revival in the churches to be caused by reading Jamblichus . When I read Proclus, I am astonished with the vigor and breadth of his performance. Here is an Atlantic strength which is everywhere equal to itself, and dares great attempts, because of the life with which it feels itself filled. Such a sense as dwells in these purple deeps of Proclus transforms every page into a slab of marble, and the book seems monumental. They suggest what magnificent dreams and projects! They show what literature should be. Rarely, rarely does the Imagination awake. But in these authors, especially Proclus, he read rather for stimulation than continuously. I think the Platonists may be read for sentences, though the reader fails to grasp the argument of the paragraph or chapter. He may yet obtain gleams and glimpses of a more excellent illumination from their genius, outvaluing the most distinct information he owes to other books. For I hold that the grandeur of the impression the stars and heavenly bodies make on us, is surely more valuable than our exact perception of a tub or a table on the ground. [back]
Note 18. Thomas Taylor, the enthusiastic translator of the Neo-Platonists, was a remarkable character, a high-minded Greek Pagan in London. Mr. Emerson spoke of him as a Greek born out of time and dropped on the ridicule of a blind and frivolous age. When he was in England in 1848 he was surprised to find how little was known of Taylor and his works by the cultivated men whom he met. Mr. Charles J. Woodbury [Talks with Ralph Waldo Emerson, Baker and Taylor Co., 1890.], in his faithful and remarkable report of various conversations with Mr. Emerson at about the time this lecture was given, quotes him as saying of Plato, He lifts man toward the divine, and I like it when I hear that a man reads Plato. I want to meet that man. For no man of self-conceit can go through Plato. [back]
Note 19. Jamblichus of Chalcis, the pupil of Porphyry, succeeded him as the head of the Neo-Platonic school of Syria in the fourth century B.C. His writings combine the religious philosophies of the Greeks and Orientals. [back]
Note 20. Journal, 1845. Gibbon has a strength rare with such finish. He built a pyramid, and then enamelled it. Mr. Emerson wrote in 1839 to his young cousin, David Greene Haskins (later an Episcopal clergyman and Doctor of Divinity), a letter about Gibbon in which, after praising his devotion to his work, he expresses disgust at his worst fault! the dirt he has defiled his notes with, but adds, You must give this evil man his due and make it felt what condemnation his noble labor and perseverance cast upon scholars who have libraries which they never read, upon scholars who chide Gibbon, but are unable even to name his dignified studies, his original authorities, his great plan, and great execution of it. [Ralph Waldo Emerson; his Maternal Ancestors; with some Reminiscences of him. By David Greene Haskins, D. D. Boston: Cupples, Upham & Co., 1887.] [back]
Note 21. Note-book on Literature: Dantes Vita Nuova reads like the book of Genesis, as if written before literature, whilst truth yet existed. A few incidents are sufficient, and are displayed with Oriental amplitude and leisure. It is the Bible of love. And again of Dante: He was free imagination, all wings, yet wrote like Euclid. [back]
Note 22. In acknowledging Herman Grimms gift of his Life of Michelangelo Mr. Emerson wrote in 1861: [Correspondence between Ralph Waldo Emerson and Herman Grimm. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1903.] MY DEAR FRIEND, The book is a treasure,in the hero, the treatment, the frank criticism, the judicial opinions, andwhat I value mostthe interior convictions of the writer bravely imparted . The book has research, method and daylight . You step from stone to stone and advance ever . Goethe and Michel Angelo deserve your fine speeches, and are not perilous for a long time. One may absorb great amounts of these with impunity; but we must watch the face of our proper Guardian, and if his eye dims a little, drop our trusted companions as profane. [back]
Note 23. A passage in the oration delivered at Dartmouth College in 1838 seems to show that Mr. Emerson in his youth had been much moved by Robertsons account of Charles V. (Nature, Addresses and Lectures, p. 162.) [back]
Note 24. Note-book. Spenser seems to delight in his art for his own skills sake. In the Muiopotmos see the security and ostentation with which he draws out and refines his description of a butterflys back and wings, of a spiders thread and spinning, of the butterflys cruise among the flowers,
Bathing his tender feet in the dew which yet on them does lie.
It is all like the working of an exquisite loom which unweariedly yields fine webs for exhibition and defiance of all spinners. [back]
Note 25. Mr. Emerson quotes from Cowley: He (Ben Jonson) esteemeth John Donne to be the first poet in the world in some things. His verses of the Lost Chaine he hath by heart; and that passage The Calm
That dust and feathers do not stir,
All was so quiet.
He affirmeth Donne to have written all his best pieces ere he was twenty-five years old. [back]
Note 26. Journal. Lord Bacons method in his books is of the understanding, but his sentences are lighted by ideas. In English Traits Mr. Emerson has much to say of Bacon (p. 238 ff.). [back]
Note 27. Mr. Emerson was asked to write the Preface to the American edition of the Gulistan (Rose-garden) of Saadi, the translation of Francis Gladwin, with a preface by James Ross (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1865). In it he said: Saadi, though he has not the lyric flights of Hafiz, has wit, practical sense, and just moral sentiment . He is the poet of friendship, love, self-devotion and serenity. There is a uniform force in his page, and conspicuously a tone of cheerfulness which has almost made his name a synonyme for grace . He inspires in the reader a good hope. What a contrast between the cynical tone of Byron and the benevolent wisdom of Saadi! [back]
Note 28. See the essay on Poetry and Imagination in Letters and Social Aims. [back]
Note 29. For Mr. Emerson novels had little attraction. Mythology and epics, and heroic tradition and biography, took their place for him. He found no pleasure in Dickens or Thackeray. The Waverley Novels delighted him as a youth, and of Scott, the delight of generous boys, he had grateful remembrance. He read Disraelis novels with some interest, but little real liking. George Sands Consuelo gave him much pleasure, and he alludes to it several times in his writings, especially in the chapter on Goethe in Representative Men. He read little of Balzac or Dumas. Charles Reades Christie Johnstone and Peg Woffington he read and praised. The Jane Eyre of Miss Brontë, mentioned farther on, he read with some interest. [back]
Note 30. The poem The Park seems to be the expression of this mood. [back]
Note 31. Firdusi, The Gardener (9401020), under the encouragement and patronage of the Sultan Mahmoud, composed an epic poem of great length, but renowned for its beauty, the Shah Nameh, the mythology and history of Persia from the earliest times. [back]
Note 32. The Dial magazine did much to introduce American readers to the ethical and religious writings of China, India, Persia and Arabia, in its selections called Ethnical Scriptures; also to the writings of the Neo-Platonists. [back]
Note 33. These notes on Books may properly end with two rules for reading given to scholars: I. Read Proudly; II. As long as you feel the voracity of reading, read in Gods name! [back]