Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882). The Complete Works. 1904. Vol. V. English Traits
THE TEUTONIC tribes have a national singleness of heart, which contrasts with the Latin races. The German name has a proverbial significance of sincerity and honest meaning. The arts bear testimony to it. The faces of clergy and laity in old sculptures and illuminated missals are charged with earnest belief. Add to this hereditary rectitude the punctuality and precise dealing which commerce creates, and you have the English truth and credit.1 The government strictly performs its engagements. The subjects do not understand trifling on its part. When any breach of promise occurred, in the old days of prerogative, it was resented by the people as an intolerable grievance. And in modern times, any slipperiness in the government of political faith, or any repudiation or crookedness in matters of finance, would bring the whole nation to a committee of inquiry and reform. Private men keep their promises, never so trivial. Down goes the flying word on the tablets, and is indelible as Domesday Book.
Their practical power rests on their national sincerity. Veracity derives from instinct, and marks superiority in organization. Nature has endowed some animals with cunning, as a compensation for strength withheld; but it has provoked the malice of all others, as if avengers of public wrong. In the nobler kinds, where strength could be afforded, her races are loyal to truth, as truth is the foundation of the social state. Beasts that make no truce with man, do not break faith with each other. T is said that the wolf, who makes a cache of his prey and brings his fellows with him to the spot, if, on digging, it is not found, is instantly and unresistingly torn in pieces. English veracity seems to result on a sounder animal structure, as if they could afford it.2 They are blunt in saying what they think, sparing of promises, and they require plain dealing of others. We will not have to do with a man in a mask. Let us know the truth. Draw a straight line, hit whom and where it will. Alfred, whom the affection of the nation makes the type of their race, is called by a writer at the Norman Conquest, the truth-speaker; Alueredus veridicus. Geoffrey of Monmouth says of King Aurelius, uncle of Arthur, that above all things he hated a lie. The Northman Guttorm said to King Olaf, It is royal work to fulfil royal words. The mottoes of their families are monitory proverbs, as, Fare fac,Say, do,of the Fairfaxes; Say and seal, of the house of Fiennes; Vero nil verius, of the De Veres. To be king of their word is their pride. When they unmask cant, they say, The English of this is, etc.; and to give the lie is the extreme insult. The phrase of the lowest of the people is honor-bright, and their vulgar praise, His word is as good as his bond. They hate shuffling and equivocation, and the cause is damaged in the public opinion, on which any paltering can be fixed. Even Lord Chesterfield, with his French breeding, when he came to define a gentleman, declared that truth made his distinction; and nothing ever spoken by him would find so hearty a suffrage from his nation. The Duke of Wellington, who had the best right to say so, advises the French General Kellermann that he may rely on the parole of an English officer. The English, of all classes, value themselves on this trait, as distinguishing them from the French, who, in the popular belief, are more polite than true. An Englishman understates, avoids the superlative, checks himself in compliments,3 alleging that in the French language one cannot speak without lying.
They love reality in wealth, power, hospitality, and do not easily learn to make a show, and take the world as it goes. They are not fond of ornaments, and if they wear them, they must be gems. They read gladly in old Fuller4 that a lady in the reign of Elizabeth would have as patiently digested a lie, as the wearing of false stones or pendants of counterfeit pearl. They have the earth-hunger, or preference for property in land, which is said to mark the Teutonic nations. They build of stone: public and private buildings are massive and durable. In comparing their ships houses and public offices with the American, it is commonly said that they spend a pound where we spend a dollar. Plain rich clothes, plain rich equipage, plain rich finish throughout their house and belongings mark the English truth.
They confide in each other,English believes in English. The French feel the superiority of this probity. The Englishman is not springing a trap for his admiration, but is honestly minding his business. The Frenchman is vain. Madame de Staël says that the English irritated Napoleon, mainly because they have found out how to unite success with honesty. She was not aware how wide an application her foreign readers would give to the remark. Wellington discovered the ruin of Bonapartes affairs, by his own probity. He augured ill of the empire as soon as he saw that it was mendacious and lived by war.5 If war do not bring in its sequel new trade, better agriculture and manufactures, but only games, fireworks and spectacles,no prosperity could support it; much less a nation decimated for conscripts and out of pocket, like France. So he drudged for years on his military works at Lisbon, and from this base at last extended his gigantic lines to Waterloo, believing in his countrymen and their syllogisms above all the rhodomontade of Europe.6
At a St. Georges festival, in Montreal, where I happened to be a guest since my return home, I observed that the chairman complimented his compatriots, by saying, they confided that wherever they met an Englishman, they found a man who would speak the truth. And one cannot think this festival fruitless, if, all over the world, on the 23rd of April, wherever two or three English are found, they meet to encourage each other in the nationality of veracity.
In the power of saying rude truth, sometimes in the lions mouth, no men surpass them. On the kings birthday, when each bishop was expected to offer the king a purse of gold, Latimer gave Henry VIII. a copy of the Vulgate, with a mark at the passage, Whoremongers and adulterers God will judge; and they so honor stoutness in each other that the king passed it over. They are tenacious of their belief and cannot easily change their opinions to suit the hour. They are like ships with too much head on to come quickly about, nor will prosperity or even adversity be allowed to shake their habitual view of conduct. Whilst I was in London, M. Guizot arrived there on his escape from Paris, in February, 1848. Many private friends called on him. His name was immediately proposed as an honorary member of the Athenæum. M. Guizot was blackballed. Certainly they knew the distinction of his name. But the Englishman is not fickle. He had really made up his mind now for years as he read his newspaper, to hate and despise M. Guizot; and the altered position of the man as an illustrious exile and a guest in the country, makes no difference to him, as it would instantly to an American.
They require the same adherence, thorough conviction and reality, in public men. It is the want of character which makes the low reputation of the Irish members. See them, they said, one hundred and twenty-seven all voting like sheep, never proposing any thing, and all but four voting the income tax,which was an ill-judged concession of the government, relieving Irish property from the burdens charged on English.
They have a horror of adventurers in or out of Parliament. The ruling passion of Englishmen in these days is a terror of humbug. In the same proportion they value honesty, stoutness, and adherence to your own. They like a man committed to his objects. They hate the French, as frivolous; they hate the Irish, as aimless; they hate the Germans, as professors. In February, 1848, they said, Look, the French king and his party fell for want of a shot; they had not conscience to shoot, so entirely was the pith and heart of monarchy eaten out.
They attack their own politicians every day, on the same grounds, as adventurers. They love stoutness in standing for your right, in declining money or promotion that costs any concession.7 The barrister refuses the silk gown of Queens Counsel, if his junior have it one day earlier. Lord Collingwood would not accept his medal for victory on 14 February, 1797, if he did not receive one for victory on 1st June, 1794; and the long withholden medal was accorded. When Castlereagh dissuaded Lord Wellington from going to the kings levee until the unpopular Cintra business had been explained, he replied, You furnish me a reason for going. I will go to this, or I will never go to a kings levee.8 The radical mob at Oxford cried after the tory Lord Eldon, There s old Eldon; cheer him; he never ratted.9 They have given the parliamentary nickname of Trimmers to the timeservers, whom English character does not love.10
They are very liable in their politics to extraordinary delusions; thus to believe what stands recorded in the gravest books, that the movement of 10 April, 1848, was urged or assisted by foreigners: which, to be sure, is paralleled by the democratic whimsy in this country which I have noticed to be shared by men sane on other points, that the English are at the bottom of the agitation of slavery, in American politics: and then again by the French popular legends on the subject of perfidious Albion. But suspicion will make fools of nations as of citizens.
A slow temperament makes them less rapid and ready than other countrymen, and has given occasion to the observation that English wit comes afterwards,which the French denote as esprit descalier. This dulness makes their attachment to home and their adherence in all foreign countries to home habits. The Englishman who visits Mount Etna will carry his teakettle to the top. The old Italian author of the Relation of England (in 1500), says, I have it on the best information, that, when the war is actually raging most furiously, they will seek for good eating and all their other comforts, without thinking what harm might befall them. Then their eyes seem to be set at the bottom of a tunnel, and they affirm the one small fact they know, with the best faith in the world that nothing else exists. And as their own belief in guineas is perfect, they readily, on all occasions, apply the pecuniary argument as final. Thus when the Rochester rappings11 began to be heard of in England, a man deposited £100 in a sealed box in the Dublin Bank, and then advertised in the newspapers to all somnambulists, mesmerizers and others, that whoever could tell him the number of his note should have the money. He let it lie there six months, the newspapers now and then, at his instance, stimulating the attention of the adepts; but none could ever tell him; and he said, Now let me never be bothered more with this proven lie. It is told of a good Sir John that he heard a case stated by counsel, and made up his mind; then the counsel for the other side taking their turn to speak, he found himself so unsettled and perplexed that he exclaimed, So help me God! I will never listen to evidence again. Any number of delightful examples of this English stolidity are the anecdotes of Europe. I knew a very worthy man,a magistrate, I believe he was, in the town of Derby,who went to the opera to see Malibran. In one scene, the heroine was to rush across a ruined bridge. Mr. B. arose and mildly yet firmly called the attention of the audience and the performers to the fact that, in his judgment, the bridge was unsafe! This English stolidity contrasts with French wit and tact. The French, it is commonly said, have greatly more influence in Europe than the English. What influence the English have is by brute force of wealth and power; that of the French by affinity and talent. The Italian is subtle, the Spaniard treacherous: tortures, it is said, could never wrest from an Egyptian the confession of a secret. None of these traits belong to the Englishman. His choler and conceit force every thing out. Defoe, who knew his countrymen well, says of them,
In close intrigue, their faculty s but weak,
For generally whateer they know, they speak,
And often their own counsels undermine
By mere infirmity without design;
From whence, the learned say, it doth proceed,
That English treasons never can succeed;
For they re so open-hearted, you may know
Their own most secret thoughts, and others too.12
Note 1. Mr. Joshua Bates, the American member of the firm of Messrs. Baring Brothers of London, said to Mr. Emerson, I have been here thirty years and nobody has ever attempted to cheat me. [back]
Note 2. The above passage recalls some Pythagorean opinions, copied by Mr. Emerson in the Blotting Book of 1830, in which he took pleasure because they recognized the Universal Mind even in animals. Man has some affinity, not only with gods, but with animals; one mind runs through the universe. The soul breathes the representations of the images of things as a sort of air. [back]
Note 3. A good instance of the Englishmans caution in checking himself in compliments is in the introduction to his audience of a lecturer by the presiding clergyman or squire, who takes pleasure in calling your attention to theerdoubtless very interesting remarks we are about to hear, etc. [back]
Note 4. The Worthies of England, by Thomas Fuller (160861). [back]
Note 7. A notable instance is that of George Stephenson, the great engineer, who, beginning life as a fire-man in a colliery, and unable to read at eighteen, rose by his extraordinary achievements to wealth and consideration, but declined the offer of knighthood. [back]
Note 8. Wellington, then Lieutenant-General Wellesley, in command of the first expedition to Portugal, had landed his forces, August 1, 1808, and soon after defeated Laborde and repulsed Junot. Sir Hugh Dalrymple, the English commissioner, made an agreement with the latter in a convention at Cintra by which the French were not only permitted to leave Portugal, but were conveyed to France with their arms and property. [back]
Note 9. Lord Eldons stanch Tory opposition to all reforms was not pursued in ignorance of the increasing unpopularity of his course; for Mr. Emerson notes that he said in his old age that, were he to begin life again, he would be damned but he would begin as an agitator. [back]
Note 10. Mr. Emerson made the following note in modification of the above passage, written several years before the book was published: It is an unlucky moment to remember these sparkles of solitary virtue in the face of the honors lately paid in England to the Emperor Louis Napoleon. I am sure that no Englishman that I had the happiness to know, consented, when the aristocracy and the commons of London cringed like a Neapolitan rabble, before a successful thief. But,how to resist one step, though odious, in a linked series of state necessities? Governments must always learn too late that the use of dishonest agents is as ruinous for nations as for single men. [back]
Note 11. The spiritual manifestations that began to attract attention in America about the year 1850 were first called Rochester knockings because they occurred in the family of John D. Fox of that city. [back]
Note 12. From Daniel Defoes True-Born Englishman, Part II. Tacitus writes of the ancient Germans: It is generally at their drinking-bouts that they discuss all important matters of a public or private nature. Not being a crafty or a cunning race, they furthermore disclose their secret thoughts in the freedom of the feast, and so the minds of all lie open and discovered. On the morrow the matter is debated again and the double process justifies itself. They discuss when disguise is impossible, they decide when too sober to blunder. (Germania, XXII.) [back]