Reference > Farmer's Cookbook > FISH AND MEAT SAUCES
  POULTRY AND GAME VEGETABLES  
CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD

Chapter XVIII. 
FISH AND MEAT SAUCES
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THE French chef keeps always on hand four sauces,—White, Brown, Béchamel, and Tomato,—and with these as a basis is able to make kinds innumerable. Butter and flour are usually cooked together for thickening sauces. When not browned, it is called roux; when browned, brown roux. The French mix butter and flour together, put in saucepan, place over fire, stir for five minutes; set aside to cool, again place over fire, and add liquid, stirring constantly until thick and smooth. Butter and flour for brown sauces are cooked together mich longer, and watched carefully lest butter should burn. The American cook makes sauce by stirring butter in saucepan until melted and bubbling, adds flour and continues stirring, then adds liquid, gradually stirring or beating until the boiling-point is reached. For Brown Sauce, butter should be stirred until well browned; flour should be added and stirred until butter until both are browned before the addition of liquid. The secret in making a Brown Sauce is to have butter and flour well browned before adding liquid.   1
  It is well worth remembering that a sauce of average thickness is made by allowing two tablespoons each of butter and flour to one cup liquid, whether it be milk, stock, or tomato. For Brown Sauce a slightly larger quantity of flour is necessary, as by browning flour its thickening property is lessened, its starch being changed to dextrine. When sauces are set away, put a few bits of butter on top to prevent crust from forming.   2
 
Thin White Sauce
2 tablespoons butter1 cup scalded milk
11/2 tablespoons flour1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains pepper
Put better in saucepan, stir until melted and bubbling; add flour mixed with seasonings, and stir until thoroughly blended; then pour on gradually while stirring constantly the milk, bring to the boiling-point and let boil two minutes. If a wire whisk is used, all the milk may be added at once.

  3
 
Cream Sauce
Make same as Thin White Sauce, using cream instead of milk.

  4
 
White Sauce I
2 tablespoons butter1 cup milk
2 tablespoons flour1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains pepper
Make same as Thin White Sauce.

  5
 
White Sauce II
2 tablespoons butter1 cup milk
3 tablespoons flour1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains pepper
Make same as Thin White Sauce.

  6
 
Thick White Sauce (for Cutlets and Croquettes)
21/2 tablespoons butter1 cup milk
1/4 cup corn-starch or1/4 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup flourFew grains pepper
Make same as Thin White Sauce.

  7
 
Velouté Sauce
2 tablespoons butter1 cup White Stock
2 tablespoons flour1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains pepper
Make same as Thin White Sauce.

  8
 
Sauce Allemande
To Velouté Sauce add one teaspoon lemon juice and yolk one egg.

  9
 
Soubise Sauce
2 cups sliced onions1/2 cup cream or milk
1 cup Velouté SauceSalt and pepper
Cover onions with boiling water, cook five minutes, drain, again cover with boiling water, and cook until soft; drain, and rub through a sieve. Add to sauce with cream. Season with salt and pepper. Serve with mutton, pork chops, or “hard boiled” eggs.

  10
 
Drawn Butter Sauce
1/3 cup butter11/2 cups hot water
3 tablespoons flour1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper
Melt one-half the butter, add flour with seasonings, and pour on gradually hot water. Boil five minutes, and add remaining butter in small pieces. To be served with boiled or baked fish.

  11
 
Shrimp Sauce
To Drawn Butter Sauce add one egg yolk and one-half can shrimps cleaned and cut in pieces.

  12
 
Caper Sauce
To Drawn Butter Sauce add one-half cup capers drained from their liquor. Serve with boiled mutton.

  13
 
Egg Sauce I
To Drawn Butter Sauce add two “hard-boiled” eggs cut in one-fourth inch slices.

  14
 
Egg Sauce II
To Drawn Butter Sauce add beaten yolks of two eggs and one teaspoon lemon juice.

  15
 
Brown Sauce I
2 tablespoons butter1 cup Brown Stock
1/2 slice onion1/4 teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons flour1/8 teaspoon pepper
Cook onion in butter until slightly browned; remove onion and stir butter constantly until well browned; add flour mixed with seasonings, and brown the butter and flour; then add stock gradually, bring to the boiling-point, and let boil two minutes.

  16
 
Brown Sauce II (Espagnole)
1/4 cup butterSprig of parsley
1 slice carrot6 peppercorns
1 slice onion5 tablespoons flour
Bit of bay leaf2 cups Brown Stock
Sprig of thymeSalt and pepper
Cook butter with carrot, onion, bay leaf, thyme, parsley, and peppercorns, until brown, stirring constantly, care being taken that butter is not allowed to burn; add flour, and when well browned, add stock gradually. Bring to boiling-point, strain, and season with salt and pepper.

  17
 
Brown Mushroom Sauce I
To one cup Brown Sauce add one-fourth can mushrooms, drained, rinsed, and cut in quarters or slices.

  18
 
Brown Mushroom Sauce II
1 can mushrooms1/4 cup flour
1/4 cup butter2 cups Consommé or Brown Stock
1/2 tablespoon lemon juice
Salt and pepper
Drain and rinse mushrooms and chop finely one-half of same. Cook five minutes with butter and lemon juice; drain; brown the butter, add flour, and when well-browned, add gradually Consommé. Cook fifteen minutes, skim, add remaining mushrooms cut in quarters or slices, and cook two minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Use fresh mushrooms in place of canned ones when possible.

  19
 
Sauce Piquante
To one cup Brown Sauce add one tablespoon vinegar, one-half small shallot finely chopped, one tablespoon each chopped capers and pickle, and a few grains of cayenne.

  20
 
Olive Sauce
Remove stones from ten olives, leaving meat in one piece. Cover with boiling water and cook five minutes. Drain olivers, and add to two cups Brown Sauce I or II.

  21
 
Orange Sauce
1/4 cup butterFew grains cayenne
1/4 cup flourJuice 2 oranges
11/3 cups Brown Stock2 tablespoons Sherry wine
1/2 teaspoon saltRind of 1 orange, cut in fancy shapes
Brown the butter, add flour, with salt and cayenne, and stir until well browned. Add stock gradually, and just before serving, orange juice, Sherry, and pieces of rind.

  22
 
Sauce à l’Italienne
Onion2 tablespoons each, finely choppedSprig marjoram
Carrot2 tablespoons butter
Lean raw ham21/2 tablespoons flour
12 peppercorns1 cup Brown Stock
2 cloves11/4 cups white wine
1/2 tablespoon finely chopped parsley
Cook first six ingredients with butter five minutes, add flour, and stir until well browned; then add gradually stock and wine. Strain, reheat, and after pouring around fish sprinkle with parsley.

  23
 
Champagne Sauce
Simmer two cups Espagnole Sauce until reduced to one and one-half cups. Add two tablespoons mushroom liquor, one-half cup champagne, and one tablespoon powdered sugar.

  24
 
Tomato Sauce I (without Stock)
1/2 can tomatoes or3 tablespoons butter
13/4 cups fresh stewed tomatoes3 tablespoons flour
1 slice onion1/4 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper
Cook onion with tomatoes fifteen minutes, rub through a strainer, and add to butter and flour (to which seasonings have been added) cooked together. If tomatoes are very acid, add a few grains of soda. If tomatoes are to retain their red color it is necessary to brown butter and flour together before adding the tomatoes.

  25
 
Tomato Sauce II
1/2 can tomatoes1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon sugar4 tablespoons butter
8 peppercorns4 tablespoons flour
Bit of bay leaf1 cup Brown Stock
Cook tomatoes twenty minutes with sugar, peppercorns, bay leaf, and salt; rub through a strainer, and add stock. Brown the butter, add flour, and when well browned, gradually add hot liquid.

  26
 
Tomato Sauce III
1/4 cup butterSprig of parsley
1 slice carrot1 cup stewed and strained tomatoes
1 slice onion
Bit of bay leaf1 cup Brown Stock
Sprig of thymeSalt and pepper
1/4 cup flour
Brown the butter with carrot, onion, bay leaf, thyme, and parsley; remove seasonings, add flour, stir until well browned, then add tomatoes and stock. Bring to boiling-point, and strain.

  27
 
Tomato and Mushroom Sauce
2 slices chopped bacon or small quantity uncooked ham2 cloves
1/2 teaspoon peppercorns
1 slice onionFew gratings nutmeg
6 slices carrot3 tablespoons flour
Bit of bay leaf1/2 can tomatoes
2 sprigs thyme11/2 cups Brown Stock
Sprig of parsleySalt and pepper
1/2 can mushrooms
Cook bacon, onion, and carrot five minutes; add bay leaf, thyme, parsley, cloves, peppercorns, nutmeg, and tomatoes, and cook five minutes. Add flour diluted with enough cold water to pour; as it thickens, dilute with stock. Cover, and cook in oven one hour. Strain, add salt and pepper to taste, and one-half can mushrooms, drained from their liquor, rinsed, and cut in quarters; then cook two minutes. Use fresh mushrooms in place of canned ones when possible.

  28
 
Tomato Cream Sauce
1/2 can tomatoesBit of bay leaf
Sprig of thyme1 cup White Sauce I
1 stalk celery1/2 teaspoon salt
1 slice onionFew grains cayenne
1/4 teaspoon soda
Cook tomatoes twenty minutes with seasonings; rub through a strainer, add soda, then White Sauce. Serve with Baked Fish or Lobster Cutlets.

  29
 
Spanish Sauce
2 tablespoons finely chopped lean raw ham1/4 cup butter
1/4 cup flour
2 tablespoons chopped celery11/3 cups Brown Stock
2 tablespoons chopped carrot2/3 cup stewed and strained tomatoes
1 tablespoon chopped onion
Salt and pepper
Cook ham and vegetables with butter until butter is well browned; add flour, stock, and tomatoes; cook five minutes, then strain. Season with salt and pepper.

  30
 
Béchamel Sauce
11/2 cups White Stock6 peppercorns
1 slice onion1/4 cup butter
1 slice carrot1/4 cup flour
Bit of bay leaf1 cup scalded milk
Sprig of parsley1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper
Cook stock twenty minutes with onion, carrot, bay leaf, parsley, and peppercorns, then strain; there should be one cupful. Melt the butter, add flour, and gradually hot stock and milk. Season with salt and pepper.

  31
 
Yellow Béchamel Sauce
To two cups Béchamel Sauce add yolks of three eggs slightly beaten, first diluting eggs with small quantity of hot sauce, then adding gradually to remaining sauce. This prevents the sauce from having a curdled appearance.

  32
 
Olive and Almond Sauce
3 tablespoons butter1 teaspoon beef extract
3 tablespoons flour8 olives (stoned and cut in quarters)
1 cup White Stock
1/2 cup cream1/2 tablespoon lemon juice
1/4 cup shredded almonds1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains cayenne
Melt butter, add flour, and pour on gradually White Stock. Just before serving add remaining ingredients. Serve with boiled or steamed fish.

  33
 
Oyster Sauce
1 pint oysters1 cup milk or Chicken Stock
1/4 cup butterSalt
1/4 cup flourPepper
Oyster liquor
Wash oysters, reserve liquor, heat, strain, add oysters, and cook until plump. Remove oysters, and make a sauce of butter, flour, oyster liquor, and milk. Add oysters, and season with salt and pepper.

  34
 
Cucumber Sauce I
Grate two cucumbers, drain, and season with salt, pepper, and vinegar. Serve with Broiled Fish.

  35
 
Cucumber Sauce II
Beat one-half cup heavy cream until stiff, and add one-fourth teaspoon salt, few grains pepper, and gradually two tablespoons vinegar; then add one cucumber, pared, chopped, and drained.

  36
 
Celery Sauce
3 cups celery, cut in thin slices2 cups Thin White Sauce
Wash and scrape celery before cutting into pieces. Cook in boiling salted water until soft, drain, rub through a sieve, and add to sauce. Celery sauce is often made from the stock in which fowl or turkey has been boiled, or with one-half stock and one-half milk.

  37
 
Suprême Sauce
1/4 cup butter1/2 cup hot cream
1/4 cup flour1 tablespoon mushroom liquor
11/2 cups hot Chicken Stock3/4 teaspoon lemon juice
Salt and pepper
Make same as Thin White Sauce, and add seasonings.

  38
 
Maître d’Hôtel Butter
1/4 cup butter1/2 tablespoon finely chopped parsley
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper3/4 tablespoon lemon juice
Put butter in a bowl, and with small wooden spoon work until creamy. Add salt, pepper, and parsley, then lemon juice very slowly.

  39
 
Tartar Sauce
1 tablespoon vinegar1/4 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon lemon juice1 tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce
1/3 cup butter
The Boston Cook Book
Mix vinegar, lemon juice, salt, and Worcestershire Sauce in a small bowl, and heat over hot water. Brown the butter in an omelet pan, and strain into first mixture.

  40
 
Lemon Butter
1/4 cup butter1 tablespoon lemon juice
Cream the butter, and add slowly lemon juice.

  41
 
Anchovy Butter
1/4 cup butterAnchovy sauce
Cream the butter and add Anchovy sauce to taste.

  42
 
Lobster Butter
1/4 cup butterLobster coral
Clean, wipe, and force coral through a fine sieve. Put in a mortar with butter, and pound until well blended. This butter is used in Lobster Soup and Sauces to give color and richness,

  43
 
Hollandaise Sauce I
1/2 cup butter1/4 teaspoon salt
Yolks 2 eggsFew grains cayenne
1 tablespoon lemon juice1/3 cup boiling water
Put butter in a bowl, cover with cold water, and wash, using a spoon. Divide in three pieces; put one piece in a saucepan with yolks of eggs and lemon juice, place saucepan in a larger one containing boiling water, and stir constantly with a wire whisk until butter is melted; then add second piece of butter, and, as it thickens, third piece. Add water, cook one minute, and season with salt and cayenne. If mixture curdles, add two tablespoons heavy cream.

  44
 
Hollandaise Sauce II
1/2 cup butterYolks 2 eggs
1/2 tablespoon vinegar or1/4 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon lemon juiceFew grains cayenne
French Chef
Wash butter, divide in three pieces; put one piece in a saucepan with vinegar or lemon juice and egg yolks; place saucepan in a larger one containing boiling water, and stir constantly with a wire whisk. Add second piece of butter, and, as it thickens, third piece. Remove from fire, and add salt and cayenne. If left over fire a moment too long it will separate. If a richer sauce is desired, add one-half teaspoon hot water and one-half tablespoon heavy cream.

  45
 
Anchovy Sauce
Season Brown, Drawn butter, or Hollandaise Sauce with anchovy sauce.

  46
 
Horseradish Hollandaise Sauce
To Hollandaise Sauce II add one-fourth cup grated horse-radish root.

  47
 
Lobster Sauce I
To Hollandaise Sauce I add one-third cup lobster meat cut in small dice.

  48
 
Lobster Sauce II
11/4 lb. lobster1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup butterFew grains cayenne
1/4 cup flour1/2 tablespoon lemon juice
3 cups cold water
Remove meat from lobster, and cut tender claw-meat in one-half inch dice. Chop remaining meat, add to body bones, and cover with water; cook until stock is reduced to two cups, strain, and add gradually to butter and flour cooked together, then add salt, cayenne, lemon juice, and lobster dice.

  49
  If the lobster contains coral, prepare Lobster Butter, add flour, and thicken sauce therewith.   50
 
Sauce Béarnaise
To Hollandaise Sauce II add one teaspoon each of finely chopped parsley and fresh tarragon or one-half tablespoon tarragon vinegar.

  51
  Served with mutton chops, steaks, broiled squabs, smelts, or boiled salmon.   52
 
Sauce Trianon
To Hollandaise Sauce II add gradually, while cooking, one and one-half tablespoons Sherry wine.

  53
 
Sauce Figaro
To Hollandaise Sauce II add two tablespoons tomato purée (tomatoes stewed, strained, and cooked until reduced to a thick pulp), one teaspoon finely chopped parsley, and a few grains cayenne.

  54
 
Horseradish Sauce I
3 tablespoons grated horseradish root1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains cayenne
1 tablespoon vinegar4 tablespoons heavy cream
Mix first four ingredients, and add cream beaten stiff.

  55
 
Horseradish Sauce II
3 tablespoons cracker crumbs3 tablespoons butter
1/3 cup grated horseradish root1/2 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups milk1/8 teaspoon pepper
Cook first three ingredients twenty minutes in double boiler. Add butter, salt, and pepper.

  56
 
Bread Sauce
2 cups milk1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup fine stale bread crumbsFew grains cayenne
1 onion3 tablespoons butter
6 cloves1/2 cup coarse stale bread crumbs
Cook milk thirty minutes in double boiler, with fine bread crumbs and onion stuck with cloves. Remove onion, add salt, cayenne, and two tablespoons butter. Usually served poured around roast partridge or grouse, and sprinkled with coarse crumbs browned in remaining butter.

  57
 
Rice Sauce
3 tablespoons rice3 cloves
2 cups milk2 tablespoons butter
1/2 onionSalt and pepper
Wash rice, add to milk, and cook in double boiler until soft. Rub through a fine strainer, return to double boiler, add onion stuck with cloves, and cook fifteen minutes. Remove onion, add butter, salt, and pepper.

  58
 
Cauliflower Sauce
1/4 cup butterCooked flowerets from a small cauliflower
1/4 cup flour
1 cup White Stock IIISalt
1 cup scalded milkPepper
Make same as Thin White Sauce and add flowerets.

  59
 
Mint Sauce
1/4 cup finely chopped mint leaves1 tablespoon powdered sugar
1/2 cup vinegar
Add sugar to vinegar; when dissolved, pour over mint and let stand thirty minutes on back of range to infuse. If vinegar is very strong, dilute with water.

  60
 
Currant Jelly Sauce
To one cup Brown Sauce, from which onion has been omitted, add one-fourth tumbler current jelly and one tablespoon Sherry wine; or, add currant jelly to one cup gravy made to serve with roast lamb. Currant Jelly Sauce is suitable to serve with lamb.

  61
  To one cup Brown Sauce, from which onion has been omitted, add one-eighth tumbler current jelly, two tablespoons Port wine, and a few grains cayenne.   62
 
Vinaigrette Sauce
1 teaspoon salt6 tablespoons olive oil
1/4 teaspoon paprika1 tablespoon chopped pickles
Few grains pepper1 tablespoon chopped green pepper
1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar1 teaspoon chopped parsley
2 tablespoons cider vinegar1 teaspoon chopped chives
Mix ingredients in order given.

  63
 
Sauce Tartare
1/2 teaspoon mustard11/2 tablespoons vinegar
1 teaspoon powdered sugarCapers1/2 tablespoon each, finely chopped
1/2 teaspoon saltPickles
Few grains cayenneOlives
Yolks 2 eggsParsley
1/2 cup olive oil1/2 shallot, finely chopped
1/4 teaspoon powdered tarragon or 1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar.

  64
  Mix mustard, sugar, salt, and cayenne; add yolks of eggs, and stir until thoroughly mixed, setting bowl in pan of ice-water. Add oil, at first drop by drop, stirring with a wooden spoon or wire whisk. As mixture thickens, dilute with vinegar, when oil may be added more rapidly. Keep in cool place until ready to serve, then add remaining ingredients.   65
 
Hot Sauce Tartare
1/2 cup White Sauce ICapers1/2 tablespoon each, finely chopped
1/3 cup MayonnaisePickles
1/2 shallot, finely choppedOlives
1/2 teaspoon vinegarParsley
To white sance add remaining ingredients. Stir constantly until mixture is thoroughly heated, but do not let it come to the boiling-point. Served with boiled, steamed, or fried fish.

  66
 
Hot Mayonnaise
Yolks 2 eggs1/4 cup hot water
2 tablespoons olive oilSalt
1 tablespoon vinegarFew grains cayenne
1 teaspoon finely chopped parsley
Add oil slowly to egg yolks, then pour on gradually vinegar and water. Cook over boiling water until mixture thickens, then add seasonings and parsley.

  67
 
Sauce Tyrolienne
To three-fourths cup Mayonnaise add one-half tablespoon each finely chopped capers and parsley, one finely chopped gherkin, and one-half can tomatoes, stewed, strained, and cooked until reduced to two tablespoons. Serve with any kind of fried fish.

  68
 
Creole Sauce
2 tablespoons chopped onion1/4 cup sliced mushrooms
4 tablespoons green pepper, finely chopped6 olives, stoned
11/3 cups Brown Sauce
2 tablespoons butterSalt and pepper
2 tomatoesSherry wine
Cook onion and pepper with butter five minutes; add tomatoes, mushrooms, and olives, and cook two minutes, then add Brown Sauce. Bring to boiling-point, and add wine to taste. Serve with broiled beefsteak or fillet of beef. Boiled rice should accompany the beef, and be served on same platter.

  69
 
Russian Sauce
3 tablespoons butter1/2 teaspoon finely chopped chives
2 tablespoons flour1/2 teaspoon made mustard
1 cup White Stock III1 teaspoon grated horseradish
1/4 teaspoon salt1/4 cup cream
Few grains pepper1 teaspoon lemon juice
Melt butter, add flour, and pour on gradually White Stock; then add salt, pepper, mustard, chives, and horseradish. Cook two minutes, strain, add cream and lemon juice. Reheat before serving. Serve with Beef Tenderloins or Hamburg Steaks.

  70
 
Sauce Finiste
3 tablespoons butter11/2 teaspoons Worcestershire Sauce
1/2 teaspoon mustard
Few grains cayenne3/4 cup stewed and strained tomatoes
1 teaspoon lemon juice
Cook butter until well browned, and add remaining ingredients.

  71

CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  POULTRY AND GAME VEGETABLES  
 
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