Reference > Farmer's Cookbook > BEEF
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Chapter XII. 
BEEF
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MEAT is the name applied to the flesh of all animals used for food. Beef is the meat of steer, ox, or cow, and is the most nutritious and largely consumed of all animal foods. Meat is chiefly composed of the albuminoids (fibrin, albumen, gelatin), fat, mineral matter, and water.   1
  Fibrin is that substance in blood which causes it to coagulate when shed. It consists of innumerable delicate fibrils which entangle the blood corpuscles, and form with them a mass called blood clot. Fibrin is insoluble in both cold and hot water.   2
  Albumen is a substance found in the blood and muscle. It is soluble in cold water, and is coagulated by hot water or heat. It begins to coagulate at 134° F. and becomes solid at 160° F. Here lies the necessity of cooking meat in hot water at a low temperature; of broiling meat at a high temperature, to quickly sear surface.   3
  Gelatin in its raw state is termed collagen. It is a transparent, tasteless substance, obtained by boiling with water, muscle, skin, cartilage, bone, tendon, ligament, or membrane of animals. By this process, collagen of connective tissues is dissolved and converted into gelatin. Gelatin is insoluble in cold water, soluble in hot water, but in boiling water is decomposed, and by much boiling will not solidify on cooling. When subjected to cold water it swells, and is called hydrated gelatin. Myosin is the albuminoid of muscle, collagen of tendons, ossein of bones, and chondrin of cartilage and gristle.   4
  Gelatin, although highly nitrogenous, does not act in the system as other nitrogenous foods, as a large quantity passes out unchanged.   5
  Fat is the white or yellowish oily solid substance forming the chief part of the adipose tissue. Fat is found in thick layers directly under the skin, in other parts of the body, in bone, and is intermingled throughout the flesh. Fat as food is a great heat giver and force-producer. Suet is the name given to fat which lies about the loins and kidneys. Beef suet tried out and clarified is much used in cookery for shortening and frying.   6
  Mineral Matter The largest amount of mineral matter is found in bone. It is principally calcium phosphate (phosphate of lime). Sodium chloride (common salt) is found in the blood and throughout the tissues.   7
  Water abounds in all animals, constituting a large percentage of their weight.   8
  The color of meat is due to the coloring matter (hæmoglobin) which abounds in the red corpuscles of the blood.   9
  The distinctive flavor of meat is principally due to peptones and allied substances, and is intensified by the presence of sodium chloride and other salts.   10
  The beef creature is divided by splitting through the back-bone in two parts, each part being called a side of beef. Four hundred and fifty pounds is good market weight for a side of beef.   11
  The most expensive cuts come from that part of the creature where muscles are but little used, which makes the meat finer-grained and consequently more tender, taking less time for cooking. Many of the cheapest cuts, though equally nutritious, need long, slow cooking to render them tender enough to digest easily. Tough meat which has long and coarse fibres is often found to be very juicy, on account of the greater motion of that part of the creature, which causes the juices to flow freely. Roasting and broiling, which develop so fine a flavor, can only be applied to the more expensive cuts. The liver kidneys, and heart are of firm, close texture, and difficult of digestion. Tripe, which is the first stomach of the ox, is easy of digestion, but on account of the large amount of fat which it contains, it is undesirable for those of weak digestion.   12
  The quality of beef depends on age of the creature and manner of feeding. The best beef is obtained from a steer of four or five years. Good beef should be firm and of fine-grained texture, bright red in color, and well mottled and coated with fat. The fat should be firm and of a yellowish color. Suet should be dry, and crumble easily. Beef should not be eaten as soon as killed, but allowed to hang and ripen,—from two to three weeks in winter, and two weeks in summer.   13
  Meat should be removed from paper as soon as it comes from market, otherwise paper absorbs some of the juices.   14
  Meat should be kept in a cool place. In winter, beef may be bought in large quantities and cut as needed. If one chooses, a loin or rump may be bought and kept by the butcher, who sends cuts as ordered.   15
  Always wipe beef, before cooking, with a cheese-cloth wrung out of cold water, but never allow it to stand in a pan of cold water, as juices will be drawn out.   16

DIVISION AND WAYS OF COOKING A SIDE OF BEEF

HIND-QUARTER
DIVISIONSWAYS OF COOKING
Flank (thick and boneless)Stuffed, rolled and braised, or corned and boiled
RoundAitchboneCheap roast, beef stew, or braised
TopSteaks, best cuts for beef tea
Lower PartHamburg steaks, curry of beef, and cecils
VeinSteaks
RumpBackChoicest large roasts and cross-cut steaks
MiddleRoasts
FaceInferior roasts and stews
LoinTipExtra fine roasts
MiddleSirloin and porterhouse steaks
First CutSteaks and roast
The TenderloinSold as a Fillet or cut in SteaksLarded and roasted, or broiled
Hindi-shinCheap stew or soup stock
  17

FORE-QUARTER
DIVISIONSWAYS OF COOKING
Five Prime RibsGood roast
Five Chuck RibsSmall steaks and stews
NeckHamburg steaks
Sticking-pieceMincemeat
Rattle RandThick EndCorned for boiling
Second Cut
Thin End
BrisketNavel EndFinest pieces for corning
Butt End or
Fancy Brisket
Fore-shinSoup stock and stews
  18

Other Parts of Beef Creature used for Food
BrainsStewed, scalloped dishes, or croquettes
TongueBoiled or braised, fresh or corned
HeartStuffed and braised
LiverBroiled or fried
KidneysStewed or sautéd
TailSoup
Suet (kidney suet is the best)
TripeLyonnaise, broiled, or fried in batter
  19

The Effect of Different Temperatures on the Cooking of Meat
By putting meat in cold water and allowing water to heat gradually, a large amount of juice is extracted and meat is tasteless; and by long cooking the connective tissues are softened and dissolved, which gives to the stock when cold a jelly-like consistency. This principle applies to soup-making.   20
  By putting meat in boiling water, allowing the water to boil for a few minutes, then lowering the temperature, juices in the outer surface are quickly coagulated, and the inner juices are prevented from escaping. This principle applies where nutriment and flavor is desired in meat. Examples: boiled mutton, fowl.   21
  By putting in cold water, bringing quickly to the boiling-point, then lowering the temperature and cooking slowly until meat is tender, some of the goodness will be in the stock, but a large portion left in the meat. Examples: fowl, when cooked to use for made-over dishes, Scotch Broth.   22

TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION OF MEATS
ArticlesRefuseProteidFatMineral matterWater
BEEF
Fore-quarter19.814.116.1.749.3
Hind-quarter16.315.315.6.852.
Round8.518.78.81.63.
Rump18.514.419..847.3
Loin12.615.917.3.953.3
Ribs20.213.620.6.744.9
Chuck ribs13.315.20.8.850.1
Tongue15.114.815.3.953.9
Heart16.20.41.62.6
Carbohydrates
Kidney.416.94.81.276.7
Liver1.821.65.41.469.8
MUTTON
Hind-quarter16.713.523.5.745.6
Fore-quarter21.111.925.7.740.6
Leg17.415.114.5.852.2
Loin14.212.831.9.6
VEAL
Fore-quarter24.514.66..754.2
Hind-quarter20.715.76.6.856.2
Leg10.518.55.1.65.
Sweetbreads15.412.11.670.9
PORK
Loin of pork16.13.527.5.742.3
Ham, smoked 12.714.133.24.135.9
Salt pork8.19.660.24.317.8
Bacon8.19.660.24.317.8
POULTRY
Chicken34.814.81.1.848.5
Fowl30.13.410.2.845.6
Turkey22.715.718.4.842.4
Goose22.210.333.8.633.1
W.O. Atwaler, Ph. D.
  23
 
Broiled Beefsteak
The best cuts of beef for broiling are porterhouse, sirloin, cross-cut of rump steaks, and second and third cuts from top of round. Porterhouse and sirloin cuts are the most expensive, on account of the great loss in bone and fat, although price per pound is about the same as for cross-cut of rump. Round steak is very juicy, but, having coarser fibre, is not as tender. Steaks should be cut at least an inch thick, and from that to two and one-half inches. The flank end of sirloin steak should be removed before cooking. It may be put in soup kettle, or lean part may be chopped and utilized for meat cakes, fat tried out and clarified for shortening.

  24
  To Broil Steak. Wipe with a cloth wrung out of cold water, and trim off superfluous fat. With some of the fat grease a wire broiler, place meat in broiler, (having fat edge next to handle), and broil over a clear fire, turning every ten seconds for the first minute, that surface may be well seared, thus preventing escape of juices. After the first minute, turn occasionally until well cooked on both sides. Steak cut one and one-half inches thick will take ten minutes, if liked rare; twelve to fifteen minutes, if well done. Remove to hot platter, spread with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper.   25
 
Beefsteak with Maître d’Hôtel Butter
Serve Broiled Steak with Maître d’Hôtel Butter.

  26
 
Porterhouse Steak with Mushroom Sauce
Serve broiled Porterhouse Steak with Mushroom Sauce.

  27
 
Porterhouse Steak with Tomato and Mushroom Sauce
Serve broiled Porterhouse Steak with Tomato and Mushroom Sauce.

  28
 
Porterhouse Steak, Bordelaise Sauce
Serve broiled porterhouse steak with

  29
  Bordelaise Sauce. Cook one shallot, finely chopped, with one-forth cup claret until claret is reduced to two tablespoons, and strain. Melt two tablespoons butter, add one slice onion, two slices carrot, sprig of parsley, bit of bay leaf, eight peppercorns, and one clove, and cools until brown. Add three and one-half tablespoons flour, and when well browned add gradually one cup Brown Stock. Strain, let simmer eight minutes, add claret and one tablespoon butter. Season with salt and pepper. Remove marrow from a marrow-bone and cut in one-third inch slices; then poach in boiling water. Arrange on and around steak, and pour around sauce.   30
 
Beefsteak à la Henriette
1/2 cup butter1/4 teaspoon salt
Yolks 3 eggs2 tablespoons tomato purée
1 tablespoon cold water1 tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce
1/2 tablespoon lemon juice1/2 tablespoon finely chopped parsley
Few grains cayenne
Wash butter, and divide in three pieces. Put one piece in saucepan with yolks of eggs slightly beaten and mixed with water and lemon juice. Proceed same as in making Hollandaise Sauce I ; then add tomato, parsley, and seasonings. Pour one-half sauce on a serving dish, lay a broiled porterhouse steak on sauce, and cover steak with remaining sauce. Garnish with parsley.

  31
 
Beefsteak à la Victor Hugo
Wipe a porterhouse steak, broil, and serve with

  32
  Victor Hugo Sauce. Cook one-half teaspoon finely chopped shallot in one tablespoon tarragon vinegar five minutes. Wash one-third cup butter, and divide in thirds. Add one piece butter to mixture, with yolks two eggs, one teaspoon lemon juice, and one teaspoon meat extract. Cook over hot water, stirring constantly; as soon as butter is melted, add second piece, and then third piece. When mixture thickens, add one-half tablespoon grated horseradish.   33
 
Steak à la Chiron
Spread broiled rump steak with Hollandaise Sauce I to which is added a few drops onion juice and one-half tablespoon finely chopped parsley.

  34
 
Beefsteak à la Mirabeau
Garnish a broiled porterhouse or cross-cut of rump steak with anchovies, and stoned olives stuffed with green butter and chopped parsley. Arrange around steak stuffed tomatoes, and fried potato balls served in shells made from noodle mixture. Pour around the following sauce: Melt two tablespoons butter, add two and one-half tablespoons browned flour, then add one cup Chicken Stock. Season with one tablespoon tomato catsup and salt and pepper.

  35
  Noodle Shells. Make noodle mixture , roll as thinly as possible, cut in pieces, and shape over buttered inverted scallop shells. Put in dripping-pan and bake in a slow oven. As mixture bakes it curls from edges, when cases should be slipped from shells and pressed firmly in insides of shells to finish cooking and leave an impression of shells. Potato balls served in these shells make an attractive garnish for broiled fish and meats.   36
 
Beefsteak with Oyster Blanket
Wipe a sirloin steak, cut one and one-half inches thick, broil five minutes, and remove to platter. Spread with butter and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Clean one pint oysters, cover steak with same, sprinkle oysters with salt and pepper and dot over with butter. Place on grate in hot oven, and cook until oysters are plump.

  37
 
Planked Beefsteak
Wipe, remove superfluous fat, and pan broil seven minutes a porterhouse or cross-cut of the rump steak cut one and three-fourths inches thick. Butter a plank and arrange a border of Duchess Potatoes, using three times the recipe, close to edge, using a pastry bag and rose tube. Remove steak to plank, put in a hot oven, and bake until steak is cooked and potatoes are browned. Spread steak with butter, sprinkle with salt, pepper, and finely chopped parsley. Garnish top of steak with sautéd mushroom caps, and put around steak at equal distances halves of small tomatoes sautéd in butter, and on top of each tomato a circular slice of cucumber.

  38
 
Broiled Fillets of Beef
Slices cut from the tenderloin are called sliced fillets of beef. Wipe sliced fillets, place in greased broiler, and broil four or five minutes over a clear fire. These may be served with Ma&lcirc;tre d’Hôtel Butter or Mushroom Sauce.

  39
 
Cutlets of Tenderloin with Chestnut Purée
Shape slices of tenderloin, one inch thick, in circular pieces. Broil five minutes. Spread with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper. Arrange on platter around a mound of Chestnut Purée.

  40
 
Sautéd Mignon Fillets of Beef with Sauce Figaro
Wipe and sauté small fillets in hot omelet pan. Arrange in a circle on platter with cock’s-comb shaped croûtons between, and pour sauce in the centre. Serve as a luncheon dish with Brussels Sprouts or String Beans.

  41
 
Sautéd Mignon Fillets of Beef with Sauce Trianon
Wipe and sauté small fillets in hot omelet pan. Arrange in a circle around a mound of fried potato balls sprinkled with parsley. Put Sauce Trianon on each fillet.

  42
 
Sautéd Fillets of Beef à la Moelle
Cut beef tenderloin in slices one inch thick, and trim into circular shapes. Season with salt and pepper, and broil six minutes in hot buttered frying-pan. Remove marrow from a marrow-bone, cut in one-third inch slices, poach in boiling water, and drain. Put a slice of marrow on each fillet. To liquor in pan add one tablespoon butter, two tablespoons flour, and one cup Brown Stock. Season with salt, pepper, and Madeira wine. Pour sauce around meat.

  43
 
Sautéd Fillets of Beef, Cherry Sauce
Prepare and cook six fillets same as Sautéd Fillets of Beef à la Moelle. Arrange on serving dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, spread with butter, and pour over.

  44
  Cherry Sauce. Soak one-fourth cup glacéd cherries fifteen minutes in boiling water. Drain, cut in halves, cover with Sherry wine, and let stand three hours.   45
 
Sautéd Fillets of Beef with Stuffed Mushroom Caps
Prepare and cook six fillets same as Sautéd Fillets of Beef à la Moelle omitting the marrow. Put a sautéd stuffed mushroom cap on each, sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are browned. Remove to serving dish, pour around Espagnole Sauce, and garnish caps with strips of red and green pepper cut in fancy shapes.

  46
  Stuffing for Mushroom Caps. Clean and finely chop six mushroom caps; add one tablespoon each of parsley and onion finely chopped, and one tablespoon butter. Moisten with Espagnole Sauce (See p. 268).   47
 
Châteaubriand of Beef
Trim off fat and skin from three pounds of beef cut from centre of fillet and flatten with a broad-bladed cleaver. Sprinkle with salt, brush over with olive oil, and broil over a clear fire twenty minutes. Remove to serving dish, garnish with red pepper cut in fancy shapes and parsley. Serve with

  48
  Espagnole Sauce. To one and one-half cups rich brown sauce add two-thirds teaspoon meat extract, one tablespoon lemon juice, and one and one-half tablespoons finely chopped parsley. Just before serving add one tablespoon butter and salt and pepper to taste.   49
 
Broiled Meat Cakes
Chop finely lean raw beef, season with salt and pepper, shape in small flat cakes, and broil in a greased broiler or frying-pan. Spread with butter, or serve with Ma&lcirc;tre d’Hôtel Butter. In forming the cakes, handle as little as possible; for if pressed too compactly, cakes will be found solid.

  50
 
Hamburg Steaks
Chop finely one pound lean raw beef; season highly with salt, pepper, and a few drops onion juice or one-half shallot finely chopped. Shape, cook, and serve as Meat Cakes. A few gratings of nutmeg and one egg slightly beaten may be added.

  51
 
Cannelon of Beef
2 lbs. lean beef, cut from round1/2 teaspoon onion juice
Grated rind 1/2 lemon2 tablespoons melted butter
1 tablespoon finely chopped parsleyFew gratings nutmeg
1 teaspoon salt
1 egg1/4 teaspoon pepper
Chop meat finely, and add remaining ingredients in order given. Shape in a roll six inches long, place on rack in dripping-pan, and arrange over top slices fat salt-pork, and bake thirty minutes. Baste every five minutes with one-fourth cup butter melted in one cup boiling water. Serve with Brown Mushroom Sauce I.

  52

Roast Beef
The best cuts of beef for roasting are: tip or middle of sirloin, back of rump, or first three ribs. Tip of sirloin roast is desirable for a small family. Back of rump makes a superior roast for a large family, and is more economical than sirloin. It is especially desirable where a large quantity of dish gravy is liked, for in carving the meat juices follow the knife. Rib roasts contain more fat than either of the others, and are somewhat cheaper.   53
  To Roast Beef. Wipe, put on a rack in dripping-pan, skin side down, rub over with salt, and dredge meat and pan with flour. Place in hot oven, that the surface may be quickly seared, thus preventing escape of inner juices. After flour in pan is browned, reduce heat, and baste with fat which has tried out; if meat is quite lean, it may be necessary to put trimmings of fat in pan. Baste every ten minutes; if this rule is followed, meat will be found more juicy. When meat is about half done, turn it over and dredge with flour, that skin side may be uppermost for final browning. For roasting, consult Time Table for Baking Meats, page 30.   54
  If there is danger of flour burning in pan, add a small quantity of water; this, however, is not desirable, and seldom need be done if size of pan is adapted to size of roast. Beef to be well roasted should be started in hot oven and heat decreased, so that when carved the slices will be red throughout, with a crisp layer of golden brown fat on the top. Beef roasted when temperature is so high that surface is hardened before heat can penetrate to the centre is most unsatisfactory.   55
  Sirloin or rib roasts may have the bones removed, and be rolled, skewered, and tied in shape. Chicago Butt is cut from the most tender part of back of rump. They are shipped from Chicago, our greatest beef centre, and if fresh and from a heavy creature, make excellent roasts at a small price.   56
  Roast Beef Gravy. Remove some of the fat from pan, leaving four tablespoons. Place on front of range, add four tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned. The flour, dredged and browned in pan, should give additional color to gravy. Add gradually one and one-half cups boiling water, cook five minutes, season with salt and pepper, and strain. If flour should burn in pan, gravy will be full of black particles.   57
  To Carve a Roast of Beef. Have roast placed on platter skin side up; with a pointed, thin-bladed, sharp knife cut a sirloin or rib roast in thin slices at right angles to the ribs, and cut slices from ribs. If there is tenderloin, remove it from under the bone, and cut in thin slices across grain of meat. Carve back of rump in thin slices with the grain of meat; by so doing, some of the least tender muscle will be served with that which is tender. By cutting across grain of meat, the tenderest portion is sliced by itself, as is the less tender portion.   58
 
Yorkshire Pudding
1 cup milk2 eggs
1 cup flour1/4 teaspoon salt
Miss C. J. Wills
Mix salt and flour, and add milk gradually to form a smooth paste; then add eggs beaten until very light. Cover bottom of hot pan with some of beef fat tried out from roast, pour mixture in pan one-half inch deep. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven, basting after well risen, with some of the fat from pan in which meat is roasting. Cut in squares for serving. Bake, if preferred, in greased, hissing hot iron gem pans.

  59
 
Larded Fillet of Beef
The tenderloin of beef which lies under the loin and rump is called fillet of beef. The fillet under the loin is known as the long fillet, and when removed no porterhouse steaks can be cut; therefore it commands a higher price than the short fillet lying under rump. Two short fillets are often skewered together, and served in place of a long fillet.

  60
  Wipe, remove fat, veins, and any tendonous portions; skewer in shape, and lard upper side with grain of meat, following directions for larding on page 23. Place on a rack in small pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and put in bottom of pan small pieces of pork. Bake twenty to thirty minutes in hot oven, basting three times. Take out skewer, remove meat to hot platter, and garnish with watercress. Serve with Mushroom, Figaro, or Horse-radish Sauce I.   61
 
Fillet of Beef with Vegetables
Wipe a three-pound fillet, trim, and remove fat. Put one-half pound butter in hot frying-pan and when melted add fillet, and turn frequently until the entire surface is seared and well browned; then turn occasionally until done, the time required being about thirty minutes. Remove to serving dish and garnish with one cup each cooked peas and carrots cut in fancy shapes, both well seasoned, one-half cup raisins seeded and cooked in boiling water until soft, and the caps from one-half pound fresh mushrooms sautéd in butter five minutes. Serve with

  62
  Brown Mushroom Sauce. Pour off one-fourth cup fat from frying-pan, add five tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned; then add one cup Brown Soup Stock, one-third cup mushroom liquor, and the caps from one-half pound mushrooms cut in slices and sautéd in butter three minutes. Season with salt and pepper, and just before serving add gradually, while stirring constantly, the butter remaining in frying-pan.   63
  To obtain mushroom liquor, scrape stems of mushrooms, break in pieces, cover with cold water, and cook slowly until liquid is reduced to one-third cup.   64
 
Braised Beef
3 lbs. beef from lower part of round or face of rump
Carrot1/4 cup each, cut in dice
Turnip
Onion
2 thin slices fat salt porkCelery
1/2 teaspoon peppercornsSalt and pepper
Try out pork and remove scraps. Wipe meat, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and brown entire surface in pork fat. When turning meat, avoid piercing with fork or skewer, which allows the inner juices to escape. Place on trivet in deep granite pan or in earthen pudding-dish, and surround with vegetables, peppercorns, and three cups boiling water; cover closely, and bake four hours in very slow oven, basting every half-hour, and turning after second hour. Throughout the cooking, the liquid should be kept below the boiling-point. Serve with Horseradish Sauce, or with sauce made from liquor in pan.

  65
 
Beef à la Mode
Insert twelve large lardoons in a four-pound piece of beef cut from the round. Make incisions for lardoons by running through the meat a large skewer. Season with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and brown the entire surface in pork fat. Put on a trivet in kettle, surround with one-third cup each carrot, turnip, celery, and onion cut in dice, sprig of parsley, bit of bay leaf, and water to half cover meat. Cover closely, and cook slowly four hours, keeping liquor below the boiling-point. Remove to hot platter. Strain liquor, thicken and season to serve as a gravy. When beef is similarly prepared (with exception of lardoons and vegetables), and cooked in smaller amount of water, it is called Smothered Beef, or Pot Roast. A bean-pot (covered with a piece of buttered paper, tied firmly down) is the best utensil to use for a Pot Roast.

  66
 
Pressed Beef Flank
Wipe, remove superfluous fat, and roll a flank of beef. Put in a kettle, cover with boiling water, and add one tablespoon salt, one-half teaspoon peppercorns, a bit of bay leaf, and a bone or two which may be at hand. Cook slowly until meat is in shreds; there should be but little liquor in kettle when meat is done. Arrange meat in a deep pan, pour over liquor, cover, and press with a heavy weight. Serve cold, thinly sliced.

  67
 
Beef Stew with Dumplings
Aitchbone, weighing 5 lbs1/2 small onion, cut in thin slices
4 cups potatoes, cut in 1/4 inch slices1/4 cup flour
Turnip2/3 cup each, cut in half-inch cubesSalt
CarrotPepper
Wipe meat, remove from bone, cut in one and one-half inch cubes, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and dredge with flour. Cut some of the fat in small pieces and try out in frying-pan. Add meat and stir constantly, that the surface may be quickly seared; when well browned, put in kettle, and rinse frying-pan with boiling water, that none of the goodness may be lost. Add to meat remaining fat, and bone sawed in \??\es; cover with boiling water and boil five minutes, then cook at a lower temperature until meat is tender (time required being about three hours). Add carrot, turnip, and onion, with salt and pepper the last hour of cooking. Parboil potatoes five minutes, and add to stew fifteen minutes before taking from fire. Remove bones, large pieces of fat, and then skim. Thicken with one-fourth cup flour, diluted with enough cold water to pour easily. Pour in deep hot platter, and surround with dumplings. Remnants of roast beef are usually made into a beef stew; the meat having been once cooked, there is no necessity of browning it. If gravy is left, it should be added to the stew.

  68
 
Dumplings
2 cups flour1/2 teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons baking powder2 teaspoons butter
3/4 cup milk
Mix and sift dry ingredients. Work in butter with tips of fingers, and add milk gradually, using a knife for mixing. Toss on a floured board, pat, and roll out to one-half inch in thickness. Shape with biscuit-cutter, first dipped in flour. Place closely together in a buttered steamer, put over kettle of boiling water, cover closely, and steam twelve minutes. A perforated tin pie-plate may be used in place of steamer. A little more milk may be used in the mixture, when it may be taken up by spoonfuls, dropped and cooked on top of stew. In this case some of the liquid must be removed, that dumplings may rest on meat and potato, and not settle into liquid.

  69
 
Corned Beef
Corned beef has but little nutritive value. It is used to give variety to our diet in summer, when fresh meats prove too stimulating. It is eaten by the workingman to give bulk to his food. The best pieces of corned beef are the rattle rand and fancy brisket. The fancy brisket commands a higher price and may be easily told from the rattle rand by the selvage on lower side and the absence of bones. The upper end of brisket (butt end) is thick and composed mostly of lean meat, the middle cut has more fat but is not well mixed, while the lower (navel end) has a large quantity of fat. The rattle rand contains a thick lean end; the second cut contains three distinct layers of meat and fat, and is considered the best cut by those who prefer meat well streaked with fat. The rattle rand has a thin end, which contains but one layer of lean meat and much fat, consequently is not a desirable piece.

  70
  To Boil Corned Beef. Wipe the meat and tie securely in shape, if this has not been already done at market. Put in kettle, cover with cold water, and bring slowly to boiling-point. Boil five minutes, remove scum, and cook at a lower temperature until tender. Cool slightly in water in which it was cooked, remove to a dish, cover, and place on cover a weight, that meat may be well pressed. The lean meat and fat may be separated and put in alternate layers in a bread pan, then covered and pressed.   71
 
Boiled Dinner
A boiled dinner consists of warm unpressed corned beef, served with cabbage, beets, turnips, carrots, and potatoes. After removing meat from water, skim off fat and cook vegetables (with exception of beets, which require a long time for cooking) in this water. Carrots require a longer time for cooking than cabbage or turnips. Carrots and turnips, if small, may be cooked whole; if large, cut in pieces. Cabbage and beets are served in separate dishes, other vegetables on same dish with meat.

  72
 
Boiled Tongue
A boiled corned tongue is cooked the same as Boiled Corned Beef. If very salt, it should be soaked in cold water several hours, or over night, before cooking. Take from water when slightly cooled and remove skin.

  73
 
Braised Tongue
A fresh tongue is necessary for braising. Put tongue in kettle, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly two hours. Take tongue from water and remove skin and roots. Place in deep pan and surround with one-third cup each carrot, onion, and celery, cut in dice, and one sprig parsley; then pour over four cups sauce. Cover closely, and bake two hours, turning after the first hour. Serve on platter and strain around the sauce.

  74
  Sauce for Tongue. Brown one-fourth cup butter, add one-fourth cup flour and stir together until well browned. Add gradually four cups of water in which tongue was cooked. Season with salt and pepper and add one teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce. One and one-half cups stewed and strained tomatoes may be used in place of some of the water.   75
 
Broiled Liver
Cover with boiling water slices of liver cut one-half inch thick, let stand five minutes to draw out the blood; drain, wipe, and remove the thin outside skin and veins. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, place in a greased wire broiler and broil five minutes, turning often. Remove to a hot platter, spread with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper.

  76
 
Liver and Bacon
Prepare as for Broiled Liver, cut in pieces for serving, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and fry in bacon fat. Serve with bacon.

  77
 
Bacon I
Place strips of thinly cut bacon on board, and with a broad-bladed knife make strips as thin as possible. Put in hot frying-pan and cook until bacon is crisp and brown, occasionally pouring off fat from pan, turning frequently. Drain on brown paper.

  78
 
Bacon II
Place thin slices of bacon (from which the rind has been removed) closely together in a fine wire broiler; place broiler over dripping-pan and bake in a hot oven until bacon is crisp and brown, turning once. Drain on brown paper. Fat which has dripped into the pan should be poured out and used for frying liver, eggs, potatoes, etc.

  79
 
Braised Liver
Skewer, tie in shape, and lard upper side of calf’s liver. Place in deep pan, with trimmings from lardoons; surround with one-fourth cup each, carrot, onion, and celery, cut in dice; one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns, two cloves, bit of bay leaf, and two cups Brown Stock or water. Cover closely and bake slowly two hours, uncovering the last twenty minutes. Remove from pan, strain liquor, and use liquor for the making of a brown sauce with one and one-half tablespoons butter and two tablespoons flour. Pour sauce around liver for serving.

  80
 
Calf’s Liver, Stuffed and Larded
Make a deep cut nearly the entire length of liver, beginning at thick end, thus making a pouch for stuffing. Fill pouch. Skewer liver and lard upper side. Put liver in baking pan, pour around two cups Brown Sauce, made of one tablespoon each butter and flour, and two cups Brown Stock, salt, and pepper. Bake one and one-fourth hours, basting every twelve minutes with sauce in pan. Remove to serving dish, strain sauce around liver, and garnish with Glazed or French Fried Onions .

  81
  Stuffing. Mix one-half pound chopped cooked cold ham, one-half cup stale bread crumbs, one-half small onion finely chopped, and one tablespoon finely chopped parsley. Moisten with Brown Sauce; then add one beaten egg, and season with salt and pepper.   82
 
Broiled Tripe
Fresh honeycomb tripe is best for broiling. Wipe tripe as dry as possible, dip in fine cracker dust and olive oil or melted butter, draining off all fat that is possible, and again dip in cracker dust. Place in a greased broiler and broil five minutes, cooking smooth side of tripe the first three minutes. Place on a hot platter, honeycomb side up, spread with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Broiled tripe is at its best when cooked over a charcoal fire.

  83
 
Tripe in Batter
Wipe tripe and cut in pieces for serving. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in batter, fry in a small quantity of hot fat, and drain.

  84
  Tripe Batter. Mix one cup flour with one-fourth teaspoon salt; add gradually one-half cup cold water, and when perfectly smooth add one egg well beaten, one-half tablespoon vinegar, and one teaspoon olive oil or melted butter.   85
 
Tripe Fried in Batter
Cut pickled honeycomb tripe in pieces for serving; wash, cover with boiling water, and simmer gently twenty minutes. Drain, and again cover, using equal parts cold water and milk. Heat to boiling-point, again drain, wipe as dry as possible, sprinkle with salt and pepper, brush over with melted butter, dip in batter, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Serve with slices of lemon and Chili Sauce.

  86
  Batter. Mix and sift one cup flour, one and one-half teaspoons baking powder, one-fourth teaspoon salt, and a few grains pepper. Add one-third cup milk and one egg well beaten.   87
 
Lyonnaise Tripe
Cut honeycomb tripe in pieces two inches long by one-half inch wide, having three cupfuls. Put in a pan and place in oven that water may be drawn out. Cook one tablespoon finely chopped onion in two tablespoons butter until slightly browned, add tripe drained from water, and cook five minutes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and finely chopped parsley.

  88
 
Tripe à la Creole
Cut, bake, and drain tripe as for Lyonnaise Tripe. Cook same quantity of butter and onion, add one-eighth green pepper finely chopped, one tablespoon flour, one-half cup stock, one-fourth cup drained tomatoes, and one fresh mushroom cut in slices; then add tripe and cook five minutes. Season with salt and pepper.

  89
 
Tripe à la Provençale
Add to Lyonnaise Tripe one tablespoon white wine. Cook until quite dry, add one-third cup Tomato Sauce, cook two minutes, season with salt and pepper, and serve.

  90
 
Calf’s Head à la Terrapin
Wash and clean a calf’s head, and cook until tender in boiling water to cover. Cool, and cut meat from cheek in small cubes. To two cups meat dice add one cup sauce made of two tablespoons butter, two tablespoons flour, and one cup White Stock, seasoned with one-half teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, and a few grains cayenne. Add one-half cup cream and yolks of two eggs slightly beaten; cook two minutes and add two tablespoons Madeira wine.

  91
 
Calves’ Tongues
Cook tongues until tender in boiling water to cover, with six slices carrot, two stalks celery, one onion stuck with six cloves, one-half teaspoon peppercorns and one-half tablespoon salt; take from water and remove skin and roots. Split and pour over equal parts brown stock and tomatoes boiled until thick.

  92
 
Calves’ Tongues, Sauce Piquante
Cook four tongues, until tender, in boiling water, to cover, with six slices carrot, two stalks celery, one onion stuck with eight cloves, one teaspoon peppercorns, and one-half tablespoon salt. Take tongues from water, and remove skin and roots. Cut in halves lengthwise and reheat in

  93
  Sauce Piquante. Brown one-fourth cup butter, add six tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned; then add two cups Brown Stock and cook three minutes. Season with two-thirds teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon paprika, few grains of cayenne, one tablespoon vinegar, one-half tablespoon capers, and one cucumber pickle thinly sliced. Served garnished with cucumber pickles, and cold cooked beets cut in fancy shapes.   94
 
Calf’s Heart
Wash a calf’s heart, remove veins, arteries, and clotted blood. Stuff (using half quantity of Fish Stuffing I on page 164, seasoned highly with sage) and sew. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, roll in flour, and brown in hot fat. Place in small, deep baking-pan, half cover it with boiling water, cover closely, and bake slowly two hours, basting every fifteen minutes. It may be necessary to add more water. Remove heart from pan, and thicken the liquor with flour diluted with a small quantity of cold water. Season with salt and pepper, and pour around the heart before serving.

  95
 
Stuffed Hearts with Vegetables
Clean and wash calves’ hearts, stuff, skewer into shape, lard, season with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and sauté in pork fat, adding to fat one stalk celery, one tablespoon chopped onion, two sprigs parsley, four slices carrot cut in pieces, half the quantity of turnip, a bit of bay leaf, two cloves, and one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns. Turn hearts occasionally until well browned, then add one and one-half cups Brown Stock, cover, and cook slowly one and one-half hours. Serve with cooked carrots and turnips cut in strips or fancy shapes.

  96
 
Braised Ox Joints
Cut ox tail at joints, parboil five minutes, wash thoroughly, dredge with flour, and sauté in butter (to which has been added a sliced onion) until well browned. Add one-fourth cup flour, two cups each brown stock, water, and canned tomatoes, one teaspoon salt, and one-fourth teaspoon pepper. Turn into an earthen pudding-dish, cover, and cook slowly three and one-half hours. Remove ox tail, strain sauce, and return ox tail and sauce to oven to finish cooking. Add two-thirds cup each carrot and turnip (shaped with a vegetable cutter in pieces one-inch long, and about as large around as macaroni) parboiled in boiled salted water five minutes. As soon as vegetables are soft, add Sherry wine to taste, and more salt and pepper, if needed. The wine may be omitted.

  97

WAYS OF WARMING OVER BEEF
Roast Beef with Gravy
Cut cold roast beef in thin slices, place on a warm platter, and pour over some of the gravy reheated to the boilingpoint. If meat is allowed to stand in gravy on the range, it becomes hard and tough.

  98
 
Roast Beef, Mexican Sauce
Reheat cold roast beef cut in thin slices, in

  99
  Mexican Sauce. Cook one onion, finely chopped, in two tablespoons butter five minutes. Add one red pepper, one green pepper, and one clove of garlic, each finely chopped, and two tomatoes peeled and cut in pieces. Cook fifteen minutes, add one teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce, one-fourth teaspoon celery salt, and salt to taste.   100
 
Cottage Pie
Cover bottom of a small greased baking-dish with hot mashed potato, add a thick layer of roast beef, chopped or cut in small pieces (seasoned with salt, pepper, and a few drops onion juice) and moistened with some of the gravy; cover with a thin layer of mashed potato, and bake in a hot oven long enough to heat through.

  101
 
Beefsteak Pie
Cut remnants of cold broiled steak or roast beef in one-inch cubes. Cover with boiling water, add one-half onion, and cook slowly one hour. Remove onion, thicken gravy with flour diluted with cold water, and season with salt and pepper. Add potatoes cut in one-fourth inch slices, which have been parboiled eight minutes in boiling salted water. Put in a buttered pudding-dish, cool, cover with bakingpowder biscuit mixture or pie crust. Bake in a hot oven. If covered with pie crust, make several incisions in crust that gases may escape.

  102
 
Cecils with Tomato Sauce
1 cup cold roast beef or rare steak finely choppedOnion juice
Worcestershire Sauce
Salt2 tablespoons bread crumbs
Pepper1 tablespoon melted butter
Yolk 1 egg slightly beaten
Season beef with salt, pepper, onion juice, and Worcestershire Sauce; add remaining ingredients, shape after the form of small croquettes, pointed at ends. Roll in flour, egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat, drain, and serve with Tomato Sauce.

  103
 
Corned Beef Hash
Remove skin and gristle from cooked corned beef, then chop the meat. When meat is very fat, discard most of the fat. To chopped meat add an equal quantity of cold boiled chopped potatoes. Season with salt and pepper, put into a hot buttered frying-pan, moisten with milk or cream, stir until well mixed, spread evenly, then place on a part of the range where it may slowly brown underneath. Turn, and fold on a hot platter. Garnish with sprig of parsley in the middle.

  104
 
Corned Beef Hash with Beets
When preparing Corned Beef hash, add one-half as much finely chopped cooked beets as potatoes. Cold roast beef or one-half roast beef and one-half corned beef may be used.

  105
 
Dried Beef with Cream
1/4 lb. smoked dried beef, thinly sliced1 cup scalded cream
11/2 tablespoons flour
Remove skin and separate meat in pieces, cover with hot water, let stand ten minutes, and drain. Dilute flour with enough cold water to pour easily, making a smooth paste; add to cream, and cook in double boiler ten minutes. Add beef, and reheat. One cup White Sauce I may be used in place of cream, omitting the salt.

  106

CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  FISH LAMB AND MUTTON  
 
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