THE meat of fish is the animal food next in importance to that of birds and mammals. Fish meat, with but few exceptions, is less stimulating and nourishing than meat of other animals, but is usually easier of digestion. Salmon, mackerel, and eels are exceptions to these rules, and should not be eaten by those of weak digestion. White fish, on account of their easy digestibllity, are especially desirable for those of sedentary habits. Fish is not recommended for brain-workers on account of the large amount of phosphorus (an element abounding largely in nerve tissue) which it contains, but because of its easy digestibility. It is a conceded fact that many fish contain less of this element than meat.
Cod belongs to one of the most prolific fish families (Gadidoe), and is widely distributed throughout the northern and temperate seas of both hemispheres. On account of its abundance, cheapness, and easy procurability, it forms, from an economical standpoint, one of the most important fish foods. Cod have been caught weighing over a hundred pounds, but average market cod weigh from six to ten pounds; a six-pound cod measures about twenty-three inches in length. Large cod are cut into steaks. The skin of cod is white, heavily mottled with gray, with a white line running the entire length of fish on either side. Cod is caught in shallow or deep waters. Shallow-water cod (caught off rocks) is called rock cod; deep-water cod is called off-shore cod. Rock cod are apt to be wormy. Cod obtained off Georges Banks, Newfoundland, are called Georges cod, and are commercially known as the best fish. Quantities of cod are preserved by drying and salting. Salted Georges cod is the best brand on the market. Cod is in season throughout the year.
Haddock is more closely allied to cod than any other fish. It is smaller (its average weight being about four pounds), and differently mottled. The distinguishing mark of the haddock is a black line running the entire length of fish on either side. Haddock is found in the same water and in company with cod, but not so abundantly. Like cod, haddock is cheap, and in season throughout the year. Haddock, when dried, smoked, and salted, is known asFinnan Haddie.
Halibut is the largest of the flatfish family (Pleuronectidæ), specimens having been caught weighing from three to four hundred pounds. Small, or chicken, halibut is the kind usually found in market, and weighs from fifteen to twenty-five pounds. Halibut are distinctively cold-water fish, being caught in water at from 32° to 45° F. They are found in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans, where they are nearly identical. The halibut has a compressed body, the skin on one side being white, on the other light, or dark gray, and both eyes are found on the dark side of head. Halibut is in season throughout the year.
Trout are generally fresh-water fish, varying much in size and skin-coloring. Lake trout, which are the largest, reach their greatest perfection in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but are found in many lakes. Salmon trout is the name applied to trout caught in New York lakes. Brook trout, caught in brooks and small lakes, are superior eating. Trout are in season from April to August, but a few are found later.
Smelts are small salt-water fish, and are usually caught in temperate waters at the mouths of rivers. New Brunswick and Maine send large quantities of smelts to market. Selected smelts are the largest in size, and command higher price. The Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective Law forbids their sale from March 15th to June 1st. Smelts are always sold by the pound.
Bluefish belongs to the Pomatomidæ family. It is widely distributed in temperate waters, taking different names in different localities. In New England and the Middle States it is generally called Bluefish, although in some parts called Snappers, or Snapping Mackerel. In the Southern States it is called Greenfish. It is in season in our markets from May to October; as it is frozen and kept in cold storage from six to nine months, it may be obtained throughout the year. The heavier the fish, the better its quality. Bluefish weigh from one to eight pounds, and are from fourteen to twenty-nine inches in length.
Mackerel is one of the best-known food fishes, and is caught in North Atlantic waters. Its skin is lustrous dark blue above, with wavy blackish lines, and silvery below. It sometimes attains a length of eighteen inches, but is usually less. Mackerel weigh from three-fourths of a pound to two pounds, and are sold by the piece. They are in season from May 1st to September 1st. Mackerel, when first in market, contain less fat than later in the season, therefore are easier of digestion. The supply of mackerel varies greatly from year to year, and some years is very small. Spanish mackerel are found in waters farther south than common mackerel, and in our markets command higher price.
Salmon live in both fresh and salt waters, always going, inland, usually to the head of rivers, during the spawning season. The young after a time seek salt water, but generally return to fresh water. Penobscot River Salmon are the best, and come from Maine and St. John, New Brunswick. The average weight of salmon is from fifteen to twenty-five pounds, and the flesh is of pinkish orange color. Salmon are in season from May to September, but frozen salmon may be obtained the greater part of the year. In the Columbia River and its tributaries salmon are so abundant that extensive canneries are built along the banks.
Shad, like salmon, are found in both salt and fresh water, always ascending rivers for spawning. Shad is caught on the Atlantic Coast of the United States, and its capture constitutes one of the most important fisheries. Shad have a silvery hue, which becomes bluish on the back; they vary in length from eighteen to twenty-eight inches, and are always sold by the piece, price being irrespective of size. Jack shad are usually cheaper than roe shad. The roe of shad is highly esteemed. Shad are in season from January to June. First shad in market come from Florida, and retail from one and one-half to two dollars each. The finest come from New Brunswick, and appear in market about the first of May.
Oysters are mollusks, having two shells. The shells are on the right and left side of the oyster, and are called right and left valves. The one upon which the oyster rests grows faster, becomes deeper, and is known as the left valve. The valves are fastened by a ligament, which, on account of its elasticity, admits of opening and closing of the shells. The oyster contains a tough muscle, by which it is attached to the shell; the body is made up largely of the liver (which containsglycogen, animal starch), and is partially surrounded by fluted layers, which are the gills. Natural oyster beds (or banks) are found in shallow salt water having stony bottom, along the entire Atlantic Coast. The oyster industry of the world is chiefly in the United States and France, and on account of its increase many artificial beds have been prepared for oyster culture. Oysters are five years old before suitable for eating. Blue Points, which are small, plump oysters, take their name from Blue Point, Long Island, from which place they originally came. Their popularity grew so rapidly that the supply became inadequate for the demand, and any small, plump oysters were soon sold for Blue Points. During the oyster season they form the first course of a dinner, served raw on the half-shell. In our markets, selected oysters (which are extremely large and used for broiling) Providence River, and Norfolk oysters are familiarly known, and taken out of the shells, are sold by the quart. Farther south, they are sold by count.
Oysters are obtainable all the year, but are in season from September to May. During the summer months they are flabby and of poor flavor, although when fresh they are perfectly wholesome. Mussels, eaten in England and other parts of Europe, are similar to oysters, though of inferior quality. Oysters are nutritious and of easy digestibility, especially when eaten raw.
To Open Oysters. Put a thin flat knife under the back end of the right valve, and push forward until it cuts the strong muscle which holds the shells together. As soon as this is done, the right valve may be raised and separated from the left.
To Clean Oysters. Put oysters in a strainer placed over a bowl. Pour over oysters cold water, allowing one-half cup water to each quart oysters. Carefully pick over oysters, taking each one separately in the fingers, to remove any particles of shell which adhere to tough muscle.
Clams, among bivalve mollusks, rank in value next to oysters. They are found just below the surface of sand and mud, above low-water mark, and are easily dug with shovel or rake. Clams have hard or soft shells. Soft-shell clams are dear to the New Englander. From New York to Florida are found hard-shelled clams (quahaugs). Small quahaugs are called Little Neck Clams and take the place of Blue Points at dinner, when Blue Points are out of season.
Scallops are bivalve mollusks, the best being found in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay. The central muscle forms the edible portion, and is the only part sent to market. Scallops are in season from October first to April first.
Lobsters belong to the highest order of Crustaceans, live exclusively in sea-water, generally near rocky coasts, and are caught in pots set on gravelly bottoms. The largest and best species are found in Atlantic waters from Maine to New Jersey, being most abundant on Maine and Massachusetts coasts. Lobsters have been found weighing from sixteen to twenty-five pounds, but such have been exterminated from our coast. The average weight is two pounds, and the length from ten to fifteen inches. Lobsters are largest and most abundant from June to September, but are obtainable all the year. When taken from the water, shells are of mottled dark green color, except when found on sandy bottoms, when they are quite red. Lobsters are generally boiled, causing the shell to turn red.
A lobster consists of body, tail, two large claws, and four pairs of small claws. On lower side of body, in front of large claws, are various small organs which surround the mouth, and a long and short pair of feelers. Under the tail are found several pairs of appendages. In the female lobster, also called hen lobster, is found, during the breeding season, the spawn, known as coral. Sex is determined by the pair of appendages in the tail which lie nearest the body; in the female they are soft and pliable, in the male hard and stiff. At one time small lobsters were taken in such quantities that it was feared, if the practice was long continued, they would be exterminated. To protect the continuance of lobster fisheries, a law has been passed in many States prohibiting their sale unless at least ten inches long.
Lobsters shed their shells at irregular intervals, when old ones are outgrown. The new ones begin to form and take on distinctive characteristics before the old ones are discarded. New shells after twenty-four hours exposure to the water are quite hard.
Lobsters, being coarse feeders (taking almost any animal substance attainable), are difficult of digestion, and with some create great gastric disturbance; notwithstanding, they are seldom found diseased.
To Select a Lobster. Take in the hand, and if heavy in proportion to its size, the lobster is fresh. Straighten the tail, and if it springs into place the lobster was alive (as it should have been) when put into the pot for boiling. There is greater shrinkage in lobsters than in any other fish.
To Open Lobsters. Take off large claws, small claws, and separate tail from body. Tail meat may sometimes be drawn out whole with a fork; more often it is necessary to cut the thin shell portion (using scissors or a canopener) in under part of the tail, then the tail meat may always be removed whole. Separate tail meat through centre, and remove the small intestinal vein which runs its entire length; although generally darker than the meat, it is sometimes found of the same color. Hold body shell firmly in left hand, and with first two fingers and thumb of right hand draw out the body, leaving in shell the stomach (known as the lady), which is not edible, and also some of the green part, the liver. The liver may be removed by shaking the shell. The sides of the body are covered with the lungs; these are always discarded. Break body through the middle and separate body bones, picking out meat that lies between them, which is some of the sweetest and tenderest to be found. Separate large claws at joints. If shells are thin, with a knife cut off a strip down the sharp edge, so that shell may be broken apart and meat removed whole. Where shell is thick, it must be broken with a mallet or hammer. Small claws are used for garnishing. The shell of body, tail, and lower part of large claws, if not broken, may be washed, dried, and used for serving of lobster meat after it has been prepared. The portions of lobsters which are not edible are lungs, stomach (lady), and intestinal vein.
Crabs among Crustaceans are next in importance to lobsters, commercially speaking. They are about two and one-half inches long by five inches wide, and are found along the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico. Crabs, like lobsters, change their shells. Soft-shell crabs are those which have recently shed their old shells, and the new shells have not had time to harden; these are considered by many a great luxury. Oyster crabs (very small crabs found in shells with oysters) are a delicacy not often indulged in. Crabs are in season during the spring and summer.
Shrimps are found largely in our Southern waters, the largest and best coming from Lake Pontchartrain. They are about two inches long, covered with a thin shell, and are boiled and sent to market with heads removed. Their grayish color is changed to pink by boiling. Shrimps are in season from May first to October first, and are generally used for salads. Canned shrimps are much used and favorably known.
Terrapin, although sold in our large cities, specially belong to Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, where they are cooked and served at their best. They are shipped from the South, packed in seaweed, and may be kept for some time in a dark place. Terrapin are found in both fresh and salt water. The Diamond Back, salt-water terrapin, coming from Chesapeake Bay, are considered the best, and command a very high price. Terrapin closely resembling Diamond Back, coming from Texas and Florida, are principally sold in our markets. Terrapin are in season from November to April, but are best in January, February, and March. They should always be cooked alive.
To Clean a Fish. Fish are cleaned and dressed at market as ordered, but need additional cleaning before cooking. Remove scales which have not been taken off. This is done by drawing a knife over fish, beginning at tail and working towards head, occasionally wiping knife and scales from fish. Incline knife slightly towards you to prevent scales from flying. The largest number of scales will be found on the flank. Wipe thoroughly inside and out with cloth wrung out of cold water, removing any clotted blood which may be found adhering to backbone.
To Skin a Fish. With sharp knife remove fins along the back and cut off a narrow strip of skin the entire length of back. Loosen skin on one side from bony part of gills, and being once started, if fish is fresh, it may be readily drawn off; if flesh is soft do not work too quickly, as it will be badly torn. By allowing knife to closely follow skin this may be avoided. After removing skin from one side, turn fish and skin the other side.
To Bone a Fish. Clean and skin before boning. Beginning at the tail, run a sharp knife under flesh close to backbone, and with knife follow bone (making as clean a cut as possible) its entire length, thus accomplishing the removal of one-half the flesh; turn, and remove flesh from other side. Pick out with fingers any small bones that may remain. Cod, haddock, halibut, and whitefish are easily and frequently boned; flounders and smelts occasionally.
To Fillet Fish. Clean, skin, and bone. A piece of fish, large or small, freed from skin and bones, is known as a fillet. Halibut, cut in three-fourths inch slices, is more often cut in fillets than any kind of fish, and fillets are frequently rolled. When flounder is cut in fillets it is served under the name of fillet of sole. Sole found in English waters is much esteemed, and flounder is our nearest approach to it.
To Cook Fish in Boiling Water. Small cod, haddock, or cusk are cooked whole in enough boiling water to cover, to which is added salt and lemon juice or vinegar. Salt gives flavor; lemon juice or vinegar keeps the flesh white. A long fish-kettle containing a rack on which to place fish is useful but rather expensive. In place of fish-kettle, if the fish is not too large to be coiled in it, a frying-basket may be used placed in any kettle.
Pieces cut from large fish for boiling should be cleaned and tied in a piece of cheesecloth to prevent scum being deposited on the fish. If skin is not removed before serving scald the dark skin and scrape to remove coloring; this may be easily accomplished by holding fish on two forks, and lowering into boiling water the part covered with black skin; then remove and scrape. Time required for boiling fish depends on extent of surface exposed to water. Consult Time-Table for Boiling, which will serve as a guide. The fish is cooked when flesh leaves the bone, no matter how long the time.
To Broil Fish. God, haddock, bluefish, and mackerel are split down the back and broiled whole, removing head and tail or not, as desired. Salmon, chicken halibut, and swordfish are cut in inch slices for broiling. Smelts and other small fish are broiled whole, without splitting. Clean and wipe fish as dry as possible, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place in well-greased wire broiler. Slices of fish should be turned often while broiling; whole fish should be first broiled on flesh side, then turned and broiled on skin side just long enough to make skin brown and crisp.
To remove from broiler, loosen fish on one side, turn and loosen on other side; otherwise flesh will cling to broiler. Slip from broiler to hot platter, or place platter over fish and invert platter and broiler together.
Clean and boil as directed in Ways of Cooking Fish. Remove to a hot platter, garnish with slices of hard-boiled eggs and parsley, and serve with Egg Sauce. A thick piece of halibut may be boiled and served in the same way.
Cook first six ingredients until reduced one-half; strain, add yolks of eggs well beaten, one-half, each, brown stock and butter, and cook over hot water, stirring constantly until thickened. Then add, gradually, remaining butter mixed with flour and stock. As soon as mixture thickens, add capers, parsley finely chopped, and salt and cayenne.
A young cod, split down the back, and backbone removed, except a small portion near the tail, is called a scrod. Scrod are usually broiled, spread with butter, and sprinkled with salt and pepper. Haddock is also so dressed.
Clean and broil fish as directed in Ways of Cooking Fish . When nearly cooked, slip from broiler onto a hot platter and brush over with melted butter. Surround with two borders of mashed potatoes, one-inch apart, forced through a pastry bag and tube. Arrange ten halves of clam-shells between potato borders, at equal distances; fill spaces between shells with potato roses. Place in oven to finish cooking fish and to brown potatoes. Just before serving, fill clam-shells with
Fricassee of Clams. Clean one pint clams, finely chop hard portions and reserve soft portions. Melt two tablespoons butter, add chopped clams, two tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one-third cup cream. Strain sauce, add soft part of clams, cook one minute, season with salt and cayenne, and add yolk of one egg slightly beaten.
Clean a four-pound haddock, sprinkle with salt inside and out, stuff, and sew. Cut five diagonal gashes on each side of backbone and insert narrow strips of fat salt pork, having gashes on one side come between gashes on other side. Shape with skewers in form of letter S, and fasten skewers with small twine. Place on greased fish-sheet in a dripping-pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, brush over with melted butter, dredge with flour, and place around fish small pieces of fat salt pork. Bake one hour in hot oven, basting as soon as fat is tried out, and continue basting every ten minutes. Serve with Drawn Butter, Egg, or Hollandaise Sauce. Garnish with lemon and parsley.
Clean a four-pound bluefish, stuff, sew, and bake as Baked Halibut with Stuffing, omitting to cut gashes on sides, as the fish is rich enough without addition of pork. Baste often with one-third cup butter melted in two-thirds cup boiling water. Serve with Shrimp Sauce.
Split and bone a bluefish, place on a well-buttered sheet, and cook twenty minutes in a hot oven. Cream one-fourth cup butter, add yolks two eggs, and when well mixed add two tablespoons, each, onion, capers, pickles, and parsley, finely chopped; two tablespoons lemon juice, one tablespoon vinegar, one-half teaspoon salt, and one-third teaspoon paprika. Sprinkle fish with salt, spread with mixture, and continue the baking until fish is done. Remove to serving-dish and garnish with potato balls, cucumber ribbons, lemon cut in fancy shapes, and parsley.
Clean a four-pound bluefish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and put on buttered fish-sheet in a dripping-pan. Add three tablespoons white wine, three tablespoons mushroom liquor, one-half onion finely chopped, eight mushrooms finely chopped, and enough water to allow sufficient liquor in pan for basting. Bake forty-five minutes in hot oven, basting five times. Serve with Sauce à lItalienne.
Remove skin, head, and tail from a four-pound haddock. Bone, leaving in large bones near head, to keep fillets in shape of the original fish. Sprinkle with salt, and brush over with lemon juice. Lay one fillet on greased fish-sheet in a dripping-pan, cover thickly with oysters, cleaned and dipped in buttered cracker crumbs seasoned with salt and pepper. Cover oysters with other fillet, brush with egg slightly beaten, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake fifty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve with Hollandaise Sauce I. Allow one pint oysters and one cup cracker crumbs.
Cook twenty minutes tomatoes, water, onion, cloves, and sugar. Melt butter, add flour, and stir into hot mixture. Add salt and pepper, cook ten minutes, and strain. Clean fish, put in baking-pan, pour around half the sauce, and bake thirty-five minutes, basting often. Remove to hot platter, pour around remaining sauce, and garnish with parsley.
Clean a piece of halibut weighing three pounds. Cut gashes in top, and insert a narrow strip of fat salt pork in each gash. Place in dripping-pan on fish-sheet, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and dredge with flour. Cover bottom of pan with water, add sprig of parsley, slice of onion, two slices carrot cut in pieces, and bit of bay leaf. Bake one hour, basting with one-fourth cup butter and the liquor in pan. Serve with Lobster Sauce.
Arrange six thin slices fat salt pork two and one-half inches square in a dripping-pan. Cover with one small onion, thinly sliced, and add a bit of bay leaf. Wipe a two-pound piece of chicken halibut and place over pork and onion. Mask with three tablespoons butter creamed and mixed with three tablespoons flour. Cover with three-fourths cup buttered cracker crumbs and arrange thin strips of fat salt pork over crumbs. Cover with buttered paper and bake fifty minutes in a moderate oven, removing paper during the last fifteen minutes of the cooking to brown crumbs. Remove to hot serving dish and garnish with slices of lemon cut in fancy shapes sprinkled with finely chopped parsley and paprika. Serve with White Sauce II, using fat in pan in place of butter.
Split fish, clean, and remove head and tail. Put in buttered dripping-pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and dot over with butter (allowing one tablespoon to a medium-sized fish), and pour over two-thirds cup milk. Bake twenty-five minutes in hot oven.
Clean and split a three-pound shad. Put skin side down on a buttered oak plank one inch thick, and a little longer and wider than the fish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and brush over with melted butter. Bake twenty-five minutes in hot oven. Remove from oven, spread with butter, and garnish with parsley and lemon. The fish should be sent to the table on plank. Planked Shad is well cooked in a gas range having the flame over the fish.
Select a roe shad and prepare same as Planked Shad. Parboil roe in salted, acidulated water twenty minutes. Remove outside membrane, and mash. Melt three tablespoons butter, add one teaspoon finely chopped shallot, and cook five minutes; add roe, sprinkle with one and one-half tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one-third cup cream. Cook slowly five minutes, add two egg yolks and season highly with salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Remove shad from oven, spread thin part with roe mixture, cover with buttered crumbs, and return to oven to brown crumbs. Garnish with mashed potatoes forced through a pastry bag and tube, small tomatoes, slices of lemon and parsley.
Skin and bone a haddock, leaving meat in two fillets. Remove to buttered plank, sprinkle with salt and pepper, brush over with melted butter and bake thirty minutes. Garnish with mashed potatoes, outlining the original shape of the fish, making as prominent as possible head, tail, and fins. Bake until potatoes are well browned, when fish should be thoroughly cooked. Finish garnishing with parsley and slices of lemon sprinkled with finely chopped parsley.
Clean and wipe as dry as possible twelve selected smelts. Stuff, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and brush over with lemon juice. Place in buttered shallow plate, cover with buttered paper, and bake five minutes in hot oven. Remove from oven, sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are brown. Serve with Sauce Bearnaise.
Stuffing. Cook one tablespoon finely chopped onion with one tablespoon butter three minutes. Add one-fourth cup finely chopped mushrooms, one-fourth cup soft part of oysters (parboiled, drained, and chopped), one-half teaspoon chopped parsley, three tablespoons Thick White Sauce, and one-half cup Fish Force-meat.
Split and bone eight selected smelts. Cut off tails, and from tail ends of fish turn meat over one inch onto flesh side. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and brush over with lemon juice. Garnish with Fish Force-meat forced through a pastry bag and tube, and fasten heads with skewers to keep in an upright position. Arrange in a buttered pan, and pour around white wine. Cover with buttered paper, and bake from fifteen to twenty minutes. Just before taking from oven, sprinkle with lobster coral forced through a strainer. Serve with Aurora Sauce.
Aurora Sauce. Melt three tablespoons butter, add three tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one and one-half cups cream and one tablespoon meat extract. Season with salt and cayenne, and add lobster coral and one-half cup lobster dice.
Cook shad roe fifteen minutes in boiling salted water to cover, with one-half tablespoon vinegar; drain, cover with cold water, and let stand five minutes. Remove from cold water, and place on buttered pan with three-fourths cup Tomato Sauce I or II. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven, basting every five minutes. Remove to a platter, and pour around three-fourths cup Tomato Sauce.
Cut bass or halibut into small fillets, sprinkle with salt and pepper, put into a shallow pan, cover with buttered paper, and bake twelve minutes in hot oven. Arrange on a rice border, garnish with parsley, and serve with Hollandaise Sauce II.
Cut a slice of halibut weighing one and one-half pounds in eight short fillets, sprinkle with salt and pepper, put in greased pan, and bake five minutes; drain, pour over one and one-half cups Brown Sauce I, cover with one-half cup buttered cracker crumbs, and bake.
Skin a three and one-half pound haddock, and cut in fillets. Arrange in buttered baking-pan, pour around fish three tablespoons melted butter, three-fourths cup white wine to which has been added one-half tablespoon lemon juice, and two slices onion. Cover and bake. Melt two tablespoons butter, add two tablespoons flour, and pour on liquor drained from fish; then add one-half cup Fish Stock (made from head, tail, and bones of fish), two tablespoons heavy cream, yolks two eggs, salt, and pepper. Remove fillets to serving dish, pour over sauce strained through cheesecloth, and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.
Clean fish and cut in eight fillets. Add seasonings to melted butter, and put dish containing butter in saucepan of hot water to keep butter melted. Take up each fillet separately with a fork, dip in butter, roll and fasten with a small wooden skewer. Put in a shallow pan, dredge with flour, and bake twelve minutes in hot oven. Remove skewers, arrange on platter for serving, pour around one and one-half cups Béchamel Sauce, and garnish with yolks of two hard-boiled eggs rubbed through a strainer, whites of hard-boiled eggs cut in strips, lemon cut fan-shaped, and parsley.
Remove skin and bones from a thick piece of halibut, finely chop fish, and force through a sieve (there should be one and one-third cups). Pound in mortar, adding gradually whites two eggs. Add one and one-fourth cups heavy cream, and salt, pepper, and cayenne to taste. Turn into a buttered fish-mould, cover with buttered paper, set in pan of hot water, and bake until fish is firm. Turn on serving dish and surround with
Normandy Sauce. Cook skin and bones of fish with three slices carrot, one slice onion, sprig of parsley, bit of bay leaf, one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns, and two cups cold water, thirty minutes, and strain; there should be one cup. Melt two tablespoons butter, add three tablespoons flour, fish stock, one-third cup heavy cream. Bring to boiling point and add yolks two eggs. Season with salt, pepper, cayenne, and one tablespoon Sauterne.
Clean two slices chicken halibut and cut into eight fillets. Season with salt, brush over with lemon juice and roll. Arrange on a tin plate covered with cheesecloth, fold cheesecloth over fillets, and cook in steamer fifteen minutes. Remove to serving dish, garnish with small shrimps, and pour around sauce, following directions for Normandy Sauce, omitting Sauterne, and seasoning to taste with grated cheese and Madeira.
Prepare and cook fish same as for Halibut à la Martin. Insert tip of small lobster claw in each fillet, and garnish with a thin slice of canned mushroom sprinkled with parsley and a thin circular slice of truffle. Serve with
Lobster Sauce III. Remove meat from a one and one-half pound lobster and cut claw meat in cubes. Cover remaining meat and body bones with cold water. Add one-half small onion, sprig of parsley, bit of bay leaf, and one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns, and cook until stock is reduced to one cup. Melt three tablespoons butter, add three tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually the stock; then add one-half cup heavy cream and yolks two eggs. Season with salt, lemon juice, and paprika; then add lobster cubes.
Sprinkle two small slices halibut with salt, pepper, and lemon juice; then brush over with melted butter, place in dripping-pan on greased fish-sheet, and bake twelve minutes. Remove to hot platter for serving, and pour over it a Welsh Rarebit.
Cut chicken halibut in thin fillets. Put together in pairs, with Fish or Chicken Force-meat between, first dipping fillets in melted butter seasoned with salt and pepper and brushing over with lemon juice. Place in shallow pan with one-fourth cup white wine. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven. Arrange on hot platter for serving, sprinkle with finely chopped parsley, garnish with Tomato Jelly, and serve with Hollandaise Sauce.
Skin and bone two large flounders, and cut into eight fillets. Put into a buttered pan, sprinkle with salt, pepper, and lemon juice, and add one-fourth cup white wine. Cover and cook fifteen minutes. Remove to serving dish, pour over Bercy Sauce, and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.
Bercy Sauce. Fry one tablespoon finely chopped shallot in one tablespoon butter five minutes; add two tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually the liquor left in pan with enough White Stock to make one cup. Add two tablespoons butter, and salt and cayenne to taste.
Wipe two slices chicken halibut, each weighing three-fourths pound. Cut one piece in eight fillets, sprinkle with salt and lemon juice, roll and fasten with small wooden skewers. Cook over boiling water. Cut remaining slice in pieces about the size and shape of scallops. Dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Arrange a steamed fillet in centre of each fish-plate, place on top of each a cooked mushroom cap, and put fried fish at both right and left of fillet. Serve with Mushroom Sauce, and garnish with watercress and radishes cut in fancy shapes.
Mushroom Sauce. Melt three tablespoons butter, add three tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually, while stirring constantly, one cup Fish Stock. When boiling-point is reached, add one-half cup cream, three mushroom caps, sliced, and one tablespoon Sauterne. Season with salt and pepper. The Fish Stock should be made from skin and bones of halibut. The mushroom caps on fillets should be cooked in sauce until soft.
Clean smelts, leaving on heads and tails. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg, and crumbs, and fry three to four minutes in deep fat. As soon as smelts are put into fat, remove fat to back of range so that they may not become too brown before cooked through. Arrange on hot platter, garnish with parsley, lemon, and fried gelatine. Serve with Sauce Tartare.
Clean six selected smelts, and cut five diagonal gashes on each side. Season with salt, pepper, and lemon juice, cover, and let stand ten minutes. Roll in cream, dip in flour, and sauté in butter. Add to butter in pan two tablespoons flour, one cup White Stock, one and one-third teaspoons Anchovy Essence, and a few drops lemon juice. Just before sauce is poured around smelts, add one add one-half tablespoons butter and one teaspoon finely chopped parsley.
Clean fish and cut in long or short fillets. If cut in long fillets, roll, and fasten with small wooden skewers. Sprinkle fillets with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Serve with Sauce Tartare.
Cut two slices chicken halibut in fillets, sprinkle fillets with salt and pepper, pour over one-third cup white wine, cover, and let stand thirty minutes. Drain, dip each piece separately in heavy cream, then in flour, and fry in deep fat. Cook skin and bones removed from fish with five slices carrot, two slices onion, sprig parsley, bit of bay leaf, one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns, and two cups cold water until reduced to one cup liquid. Make sauce of two tablespoons butter, three tablespoons flour, the fish stock, and one-third cup heavy cream. Add yolks two eggs, salt, pepper, cayenne, and white wine to taste.
Clean crabs, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain. Being light, they will rise to top of fat, and should be turned while frying. Soft-shell crabs are usually fried. Serve with Sauce Tartare.
To Clean a Crab. Lift and fold back the tapering points which are found on each side of the back shell, and remove spongy substance that lies under them. Turn crab on its back, and with a pointed knife remove the small piece at lower part of shell, which terminates in a point; this is called the apron.
To prepare terrapin for cooking, plunge into boiling water and boil five minutes. Lift out of water with skimmer, and remove skin from feet and tail by rubbing with a towel. Draw out head with a skewer, and rub off skin.
To Cook Terrapin. Put in a kettle, cover with boiling salted water, add two slices each of carrot and onion, and a stalk of celery. Cook until meat is tender, which may be determined by pressing feet-meat between thumb and finger. The time required will be from thirty-five to forty minutes. Remove from water, cool, draw out nails from feet, cut under shell close to upper shell and remove. Empty upper shell and carefully remove and discard gall-bladder, sand-bags, and thick, heavy part of intestines. Any of the gall-bladder would give a bitter flavor to the dish. The liver, small intestines, and eggs are used with the meat.
To stock and wine add terrapin meat, with bones cut in pieces and entrails cut in smaller pieces; then cook slowly until liquor is reduced one-half. Add liver separated in pieces, eggs, butter, salt, pepper, and cayenne.
Add to Terrapin â la Baltimore one tablespoon each butter and flour creamed together, one-half cup cream, yolks two eggs slightly beaten, and one teaspoon lemon juice; then add, just before serving, one tablespoon Sherry wine. Pour in a deep dish and garnish with toast or puff-paste points.
Melt the butter, add flour, and pour on slowly the cream. Add terrapin meat with bones cut in pieces, entrails cut smaller, liver separated in pieces, eggs of terrapin, and mushrooms. Season with salt and cayenne. Just before serving, add eggs slightly beaten and two tablespoons Sherry wine.
13/4 cups cold flaked fish (cod, haddock, halibut, or cusk)
Sprig of parsley
1/2 slice onion
Salt and pepper
1 cup White Sauce I
1/2 cup buttered cracker crumbs
Bit of bay leaf
Scald milk, for the making of White Sauce, with bay leaf, parsley, and onion. Cover the bottom of small buttered platter with one-half of the fish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and pour over one-half the sauce; repeat. Cover with crumbs, and bake in hot oven until crumbs are brown. Fish à la crême, baked in scallop shells, makes an attractive luncheon dish, or may be served for a fish course at dinner.
21/2 cups cold flaked fish (cod, haddock, halibut, or cusk)
1/4 cup butter
1/4 cup flour
11/2 cups milk
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 slice onion
1/8 teaspoon pepper
Blade of mace
Sprig of parsley
Yolks 2 eggs
2/3 cup buttered cracker crumbs
Scald milk with onion, mace, and parsley; remove seasonings. Melt butter, add flour, salt, pepper, and gradually the milk; then add eggs, slightly beaten. Put a layer of fish on buttered dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and add a few drops of lemon juice. Cover with sauce, continuing until fish and sauce are used, shaping in pyramid form. Cover with crumbs, and bake in hot oven until crumbs are brown.
Take equal parts of cold flaked fish and cold boiled potatoes finely chopped. Season with salt and pepper. Try out fat salt pork, remove scraps, leaving enough fat in pan to moisten fish and potatoes. Put in fish and potatoes, stir until heated, then cook until well browned underneath; fold, and turn like an omelet.
To one and one-half cups cold flaked halibut or salmon add one cup thick White Sance. Season with salt and pepper, and spread on a plate to cool. Shape, roll in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, and fry in deep fat; drain, arrange on hot dish for serving, and garnish with parsley. If salmon is used, add lemon juice and finely chopped parsley.
Line a buttered baking-dish with cold flaked cod, sprinkle with salt and pepper, cover with a layer of oysters (first dipped in melted butter, seasoned with onion juice, lemon juice, and a few grains of cayenne, and then in cracker crumbs), add three tablespoons oyster liquor; repeat, and cover with buttered cracker crumbs. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven. Serve with Egg or Hollandaise Sauce I.
Line a bread pan, slightly buttered, with warm steamed rice. Fill the centre with cold boiled salmon, flaked, and seasoned with salt, pepper, and a slight grating of nutmeg. Cover with rice and steam one hour. Turn on a hot platter for serving, and pour around Egg Sauce II.
Pick salt codfish in pieces (there should be three-fourths cup), and soak in lukewarm water, the time depending upon hardness and saltness of the fish. Drain, and add one cup White Sauce I. Add one beaten egg just before sending to table. Garnish with slices of hard-boiled eggs. Creamed Codfish is better made with cream slightly thickened in place of White Sauce.
Wash fish in cold water, and pick in very small pieces, or cut, using scissors. Wash, pare, and soak potatoes, cutting in pieces of uniform size before measuring. Cook fish and potatoes in boiling water to cover until potatoes are soft. Drain thoroughly through strainer, return to kettle in which they were cooked, mash thoroughly (being sure there are no lumps left in potato), add butter, egg well beaten, and pepper. Beat with a fork two minutes. Add salt if necessary. Take up by spoonfuls, put in frying-basket, and fry one minute in deep fat, allowing six fish balls for each frying; drain on brown paper. Reheat the fat after each frying.
Prepare as for Fish Balls, omitting egg. Try out fat salt pork, remove scrap, leaving enough fat in pan to moisten fish and potatoes. Put in fish and potatoes, stir until heated, then cook until well browned underneath; fold, and turn like an omelet.
Pick salt codfish in long thin strips. If very salt, it may need to be freshened by standing for a short time in lukewarm water. Place on a greased wire broiler, and broil until brown on one side; turn, and brown the other. Remove to platter, and spread with butter.
Remove fish from can, and arrange on a platter that may be put in the oven; sprinkle with pepper, brush over with lemon juice and melted butter, and pour over the liquor left in can. Heat thoroughly, and garnish with parsley and slices of lemon.
Put fish in dripping-pan, surround with milk and water in equal proportions, place on back of range, where it will heat slowly. Let stand twenty-five minutes; pour off liquid, spread with butter, and bake twenty-five minutes.
Cut fish in strips (there should be one cup), put in baking-pan, cover with cold water, place on back of range and allow water to heat to boiling-point; let stand on range, keeping water below boiling-point for twenty-five minutes, drain, and rinse thoroughly. Separate fish into flakes, add one-half cup heavy cream and four hard-boiled eggs thinly sliced. Season with cayenne, add one tablespoon butter, and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.
Allow seven Blue Point oysters to each person, and season with three-fourth tablespoon lemon juice, one-half tablespoon tomato catsup, one-half teaspoon finely chopped shallot, three drops Tabasco sauce, few gratings horseradish root, and salt to taste. Chill thoroughly and serve in cocktail glasses. Sprinkle with finely chopped celery and garnish with small pieces of red and green pepper.
Oysters for roasting should be bought in the shell. Wash thoroughly, scrubbing with a brush. Put in a dripping-pan, and cook in a hot oven until shells part. Open, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve in the deep halves of the shells.
Mix three-fourths tablespoon melted butter, three-fourths teaspoon each lemon juice and Sauterne, few drops Tabasco, one-fourth teaspoon finely chopped parsley, and salt and paprika to taste. Before putting ingredients in bowl, rub inside of bowl with a clove of garlic.
Clean one pint oysters and drain from their liquor. Put in a stewpan and cook until oysters are plump and edges begin to curl. Shake pan to prevent oysters from adhering to pan, or stir with a fork. Season with salt, pepper, and two tablespoons butter, and pour over four small slices of toast. Garnish with toast points and parsley.
Clean oysters, heat oyster liquor to boiling-point, and strain through double thickness of cheese-cloth; add oysters to liquor and cook until plump. Remove oysters with skimmer and add enough cream to liquor to make a cupful. Melt butter, add flour, and pour on gradually hot liquid; add salt, cayenne, parsley, oysters, and egg slightly beaten.
Clean, and cook oysters until plump and edges begin to curl; drain, and add to White Sauce seasoned with celery salt. Serve on toast, in timbale cases, patty shells, or vol-au-vents. One-fourth cup sliced mushrooms are often added to Creamed Oysters.
Parboil and drain oysters, reserve liquor, heat, strain, and set aside for sauce. Brown butter, add flour, and stir until well browned; then add oyster liquor, milk, seasonings, and oysters. For filling patty cases or vol-au-vents.
Clean oysters, parboil, and drain. Melt butter, add flour, and stir until well browned. Pour on gradually, while stirring constantly, oyster liquor and stock. Add seasonings and oysters. Serve on toast, in timbale cases, patty shells, or vol-au-vents.
Wash and pick over oysters, parboil, drain, and to liquor add enough water to make one cup liquid; then strain through cheese-cloth. Cook butter, shallot, and pepper three minutes, add flour, and pour on gradually, while stirring constantly, oyster liquor. Add seasonings and oysters. Remove oysters to small pieces of bread sautéd in butter on one side. Pour sauce over oysters and garnish with thin slices of cucumber pickles.
Clean oysters and dry between towels. Lift with plated fork by the tough muscle and dip in butter, then in cracker crumbs which have been seasoned with salt and pepper. Place in a buttered wire broiler and broil over a clear fire until juices flow, turning while broiling. Serve with or without Maître dHôtel Butter.
Cook macaroni in boiling salted water until soft; drain, and rinse with cold water. Put a layer in bottom of a buttered pudding-dish, cover with oysters, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and dot over with one-half of the butter; repeat, and cover with buttered crumbs. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven.
Mix bread and cracker crumbs, and stir in butter. Put a thin layer in bottom of a buttered shallow baking-dish, cover with oysters, and sprinkle with salt and pepper; add one-half half each oyster liquor and cream. Repeat, and cover top with remaining crumbs. Bake thirty minutes in hot oven. Never allow more than two layers of oysters for Scalloped Oysters; if three layers are used, the middle layer will be underdone, while others are properly cooked. A sprinkling of mace or grated nutmeg to each layer is considered by many an improvement. Sherry wine may be used in place of cream.
Clean one pint oysters, sprinkle on both sides with salt and pepper. Take up by the tough muscle with plated fork and dip in seasoned cracker crumbs. Put two tablespoons butter in hot frying-pan, add oysters, brown on one side, then turn and brown on the other.
Clean oysters, wrap a thin slice of bacon around each, and fasten with small wooden skewers. Put in a broiler, place broiler over dripping-pan, and bake in a hot oven until bacon is crisp and brown, turning broiler once during the cooking. Drain on brown paper.
Clean, and dry between towels, selected oysters. Season with salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg, and cracker or stale bread crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain on brown paper and serve on a folded napkin. Garnish with parsley and serve with or without Sauce Tyrolienne.
Clams for steaming should be bought in the shell and always be alive. Wash clams thoroughly, scrubbing with a brush, changing the water several times. Put into a large kettle, allowing one-half cup hot water to four quarts clams; cover closely, and steam until shells partially open, care being taken that they are not overdone. Serve with individual dishes of melted butter. Some prefer a few drops of lemon juice or vinegar added to the butter. If a small quantity of boiling water is put into the dishes, the melted butter will float on top and remain hot much longer.
Roasted clams are served at Clam Bakes. Clams are washed in sea-water, placed on stones which have been previously heated by burning wood on them, ashes removed, and stones sprinkled with thin layer of seaweed. Clams are piled on stones, covered with seaweed, and a piece of canvas thrown over them to retain the steam.
Fry one-half teaspoon finely chopped shallot in one and one-half tablespoons butter five minutes; add eighteen clams and one-half cup white wine. Cook until the shells open. Remove clams from shells and reduce liquor to one-third cupful. Melt two tablespoons butter, add two table- spoons flour, and pour on gradually the clam liquor; add one-fourth cup cream and the clams, season with salt and pepper. Refill clam-shells, sprinkle with chopped parsley, and serve on each a square piece of fried bacon.
Allow one-fourth cup lobster meat, cut in pieces, for each cocktail, and season with two tablespoons, each, tomato catsup and Sherry wine, one tablespoon lemon juice, six drops Tabasco Sauce, one-eighth teaspoon finely chopped chives, and salt to taste. Chill thoroughly, and serve in cocktail glasses.
Remove lobster meat from shell. Use tail meat, divided in fourths, and large pieces of claw meat. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and lemon juice; dip in crumbs, egg, and again in crumbs; fry in deep fat, drain, and serve with Sauce Tartare.
Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in cubes. Heat in White Sauce and add seasonings. Refill lobster shells, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are brown. To prevent lobster shells from curling over lobster while baking, insert small wooden skewers of sufficient length to keep shell in its original shape. To assist in preserving color of shell, brush over with olive oil before putting into oven. Scalloped lobster may be baked in buttered scallop shells, or in a buttered baking dish.
Clean and parboil oysters; drain, and add to liquor body bones and tough claw meat from lobster, water, celery, and onion. Cook slowly until stock is reduced to one cup, and strain. Make sauce of butter, flour, strained stock, and cream. Add oysters and lobster meat cut in strips; then add seasonings. One-half teaspoon beef extract is an improvement to this dish.
Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in strips. Cook butter with mushrooms broken in pieces and onion juice three minutes; add flour, and pour on gradually milk. Add lobster meat, season with salt and paprika, and, as soon as lobster is heated, add wine. Remove to serving dish, and garnish with puff paste or toast points and parsley.
Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in dice. Scald milk with bay leaf, remove bay leaf and make a white sauce of butter, flour, and milk; add salt, cayenne, nutmeg, parsley, yolks of eggs slightly beaten, and lemon juice. Add lobster dice, refill shells, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are brown. One-half chicken stock and one-half cream may be used for sauce if a richer dish is desired.
Live lobsters may be dressed for broiling at market, or may be done at home. Clean lobster and place in a buttered wire broiler. Broil eight minutes on flesh side, turn and broil six minutes on shell side. Serve with melted butter. Lobsters taste nearly the same when placed in dripping-pan and baked fifteen minutes in hot oven, and are much easier cooked.
To Split a Live Lobster. Cross large claws and hold firmly with left hand. With sharp-pointed knife, held in right hand, begin at the mouth and make a deep incision, and, with a sharp cut, draw the knife quickly through body and entire length of tail. Open lobster, remove intestinal vein, liver, and stomach, and crack claw shells with a mallet.
Prepare lobster same as for Broiled Live Lobster and place in a dripping-pan. Cook liver of lobster with one tablespoon butter three minutes. Season highly with salt, cayenne, and Worcestershire Sauce. Spread over lobster, and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes. Remove to platter and serve at once, allowing over one and one-half pound lobster to each person.
Split a live lobster, remove meat from tail and large claws, cut in pieces, and arrange on skewers, alternating pieces with small slices of bacon. Fry in deep fat and drain. Cook liver of lobster with one tablespoon butter three minutes, season highly with mustard and cayenne, and serve with lobster.
Split a live lobster and put in a large omelet pan, sprinkle with one-fourth onion finely chopped and a few grains of cayenne and cook five minutes. Add one-half cup Tomato Sauce II and cook three minutes; then add two tablespoons Sherry wine, cover, and cook in oven seven minutes. To the liver add one tablespoon wine, two tablespoons Tomato Sauce and one-half tablespoon melted butter; heat in pan after lobster has been removed. As soon as sauce is heated, strain, and pour over lobster.
Cut two one and one-half pound live lobsters in pieces for serving, remove intestinal vein and lady, and crack large claws. Cook one tablespoon finely chopped shallot and three tablespoons chopped carrot in two tablespoons butter ten minutes, stirring constantly that carrots may not burn. Add two sprigs thyme, one-half bay leaf, two red peppers from pepper sauce, one teaspoon salt, one and one-third cups Brown Stock, two-thirds cup stewed and strained tomatoes, and three tablespoons Sherry wine. Add lobster and cook fifteen minutes. Remove lobster to serving dish, thicken sauce with four tablespoons, each, butter and flour cooked together, and add one and one-half tablespoons brandy. Pour sauce around lobster, and sprinkle all with finely chopped chives.