Reference > Farmer's Cookbook > BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, AND SHORTCAKES
  BREAD AND BREAD MAKING CEREALS  
CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD

Chapter V. 
BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, AND SHORTCAKES
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Batters, Sponges, and Doughs
BATTER is a mixture of flour and some liquid (usually combined with other ingredients, as sugar, salt, eggs, etc.), of consistency to pour easily, or to drop from a spoon.   1
  Batters are termed thin or thick, according to their consistency.   2
  Sponge is a batter to which yeast is added.   3
  Dough differs from batter inasmuch as it is stiff enough to be handled.   4
 
Cream Scones
2 cups flour1/2 teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons baking powder4 tablespoons butter
2 teaspoons sugar2 eggs
1/3 cup cream
Mix and sift together flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Rub in butter with tips of fingers; add eggs well beaten (reserving a small amount of unbeaten white) and cream. Toss on a floured board, pat, and roll to three fourths inch in thickness. Cut in squares, brush with reserved white, sprinkle with sugar, and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes.

  5
 
Baking Powder Biscuit I
2 cups bread flour1 tablespoon lard
5 teaspoons baking powder1 cup milk and water in equal parts
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon butter
Mix dry ingredients, and sift twice.

  6
  Work in butter and lard with tips of fingers; add gradually the liquid, mixing with knife to a soft dough. It is impossible to determine the exact amount of liquid, owing to differences in flour. Toss on a floured board, pat and roll lightly to one-half inch in thickness. Shape with a biscuit-cutter. Place on buttered pan, and bake in hot oven twelve to fifteen minutes. If baked in too slow an oven, the gas will escape before it has done its work.   7
 
Baking Powder Biscuit II
2 cups bread flour2 tablespoons butter
5 teaspoons baking powder1 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt
Mix and bake as Baking Powder Biscuit I.

  8
 
Emergency Biscuit
Use recipe for Baking Powder Biscuit I or II, with the addition of more milk, that mixture may be dropped from spoon without spreading. Drop by spoonfuls on a buttered pan, one-half inch apart. Brush over with milk, and bake in hot oven eight minutes.

  9
 
Fruit Rolls (Pin Wheel Biscuit)
2 cup flour2/3 cup milk
5 teaspoons baking powder1/3 cup stoned raisins (finely chopped)
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons sugar2 tablespoons citron (finely chopped)
2 tablespoons butter
1/3 teaspoon cinnamon
Mix as Baking Powder Biscuit II. Roll to one-fourth inch thickness, brush over with melted butter, and sprinkle with fruit, sugar, and cinnamon. Roll like a jelly roll; cut off pieces three-fourths inch in thickness. Place on buttered tin, and bake in hot oven fifteen minutes. Currants may be used in place of raisins and citron.

  10
 
Twin Mountain Muffins
1/4 cup butter1 egg
1/4 cup sugar1 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt2 cups bread flour
5 teaspoons baking powder
Cream the butter; add sugar and egg well beaten; sift baking powder with flour, and add to the first mixture, alternating with milk. Bake in buttered tin gem pans twenty-five minutes.

  11
 
One Egg Muffins I
31/2 cups flour11/3 cups milk
6 teaspoons baking powder3 tablespoons melted butter
1 teaspoon salt1 egg
3 tablespoons sugar
Mix and sift dry ingredients; add gradually milk, egg well beaten, and melted butter. Bake in buttered gem pans twenty-five minutes. If iron pans are used they must be previously heated. This recipe makes thirty muffins. Use half the proportions given and a small egg, if half the number is required.

  12
 
One Egg Muffins II
2 cups flour2 tablespoons sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder1 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt2 tablespoons melted butter
1 egg
Mix and bake as One Egg Muffin I.

  13
 
Berry Muffins I (without eggs)
2 cups flour2 tablespoons butter
1/4 cup sugar1 cup milk (scant)
4 teaspoons baking powder1 cup berries
1/2 teaspoon salt
Mix and sift dry ingredients; work in butter with tips of fingers; add milk and berries.

  14
 
Berry Muffins II
1/4 cup butter4 teaspoons baking powder
1/3 cup sugar1/2 teaspoon salt
1 egg1 cup milk
22/3 cups flour1 cup berries
Cream the butter; add gradually sugar and egg well beaten; mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt, reserving one-fourth cup flour to be mixed with berries and added last; the remainder alternately with milk.

  15
 
Queen of Muffins
1/4 cup butter1/2 cup milk (scant)
1/3 cup sugar11/2 cups flour
1 egg21/2 teaspoons baking powder
Mix and bake same as Twin Mountain Muffins.

  16
 
Rice Muffins
21/4 cups flour1 cup milk
3/4 cup hot cooked rice1 egg
5 teaspoons baking powder2 tablespoons melted butter
2 tablespoons sugar1/2 teaspoon salt
Mix and sift flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder; add one-half milk, egg well beaten, the remainder of the milk mixed with rice, and beat thoroughly; then add butter. Bake in buttered muffin rings placed in buttered pan or buttered gem pans.

  17
 
Oatmeal Muffins
1 cup cooked oatmeal1/2 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups flour1/2 cup milk
2 tablespoons sugar1 egg
4 teaspoons baking powder2 tablespoons melted butter
Mix and bake as Rice Muffins.

  18
 
Graham Muffins I
11/4 cups Graham flour1/3 cup molasses
1 cup flour3/4 teaspoon soda
1 cup sour milk1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk to molasses, and combine mixtures; then add butter.

  19
 
Graham Muffins II
1 cup Graham or entire wheat flour1 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk
3/4 cup flour1 egg
1/4 cup sugar3 tablespoons melted butter
5 teaspoons baking powder.
Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk gradually, egg well beaten, and melted butter; bake in hot oven in buttered gem pans twenty-five minutes.

  20
 
Rye Muffins I
Make as Graham Muffins II, substituting rye meal for Graham flour.

  21
 
Rye Muffins II
11/4 cups rye meal1/4 cup molasses
11/4 cups flour11/4 cups milk
4 teaspoons baking powder1 egg
1 teaspoon salt1 tablespoon melted butter
Mix and bake as Graham Muffins II, adding molasses with milk.

  22
 
Rye Gems
12/3 cups rye flour1/4 cup molasses
11/3 cups flour11/4 cups milk
4 teaspoons baking powder2 eggs
1 teaspoon salt3 tablespoons melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses, milk, eggs well beaten, and butter. Bake in hot oven in buttered gem pans twenty-five minutes.

  23
 
Corn Meal Gems
1/2 cup corn meal1 tablespoon melted butter
1 cup flour1/2 teaspoon salt
3 teaspoons baking powder3/4 cup milk
1 tablespoon sugar1 egg
Mix and bake as Graham Muffins II.

  24
 
Hominy Gems
1/4 cup hominy1 cup corn meal
1/2 teaspoon salt3 tablespoons sugar
1/2 cup boiling water3 tablespoons butter
1 cup scalded milk2 eggs
3 teaspoons baking powder
Add hominy mixed with salt to boiling water and let stand until hominy absorbs water. Add scalded milk to corn meal, then add sugar and butter. Combine mixtures, cool slightly, add yolks of eggs beaten until thick, and whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Sift in baking powder and beat thoroughly. Bake in hot buttered gem pans.

  25
 
Berkshire Muffins
1/2 cup corn meal1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup flour2/3 cup scalded milk (scant)
1/2 cup cooked rice1 egg
2 tablespoons sugar1 tablespoon melted butter
3 teaspoons baking powder
Turn scalded milk on meal, let stand five minutes; add rice, and flour mixed and sifted with remaining dry ingredients. Add yolk of egg well beaten, butter, and white of egg beaten stiff and dry.

  26
 
Golden Corn Cake
1 cup corn meal3/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup flour1 cup milk
1/4 cup sugar1 egg
5 teaspoons baking powder2 tablespoons melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk, egg well beaten, and butter; bake in shallow buttered pan in hot oven twenty minutes.

  27
 
Corn Cake (sweetened with Molasses)
1 cup corn meal1/4 cup molasses
3/4 cup flour3/4 cup milk
31/2 teaspoons baking powder1 egg
1 teaspoon salt1 tablespoon melted butter
Mix and bake as Golden Corn Cake, adding molasses to milk.

  28
 
White Corn Cake
1/4 cup butter11/4 cups white corn meal
1/2 cup sugar11/4 cups flour
11/3 cups milk4 teaspoons baking powder
Whites 3 eggs1 teaspoon salt
Cream the butter; add sugar gradually; add milk, alternating with dry ingredients, mixed and sifted. Beat thoroughly; add whites of eggs beaten stiff. Bake in buttered cake pan thirty minutes.

  29
 
Rich Corn Cake
1 cup corn meal1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup white flour7/8 cup milk
4 teaspoons baking powder2 eggs
1/4 cup sugar1/4 cup melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add milk, gradually, eggs well beaten, and butter. Bake in a buttered, shallow pan, in a hot oven.

  30
 
Susie’s Spider Corn Cake
11/4 cups corn meal1 teaspoon salt
2 cups sour milk2 eggs
1 teaspoon soda2 tablespoons butter
Mix soda, salt, and corn meal; gradually add eggs well beaten and milk. Heat frying-pan, grease sides and bottom of pan with butter, turn in the mixture, place on middle grate in hot oven, and cook twenty minutes.

  31
 
White Corn Meal Cake
1 cup scalded milk1/2 cup white corn meal
1 teaspoon salt
Add salt to corn meal, and pour on gradually milk. Turn into a buttered shallow pan to the depth of one-fourth inch. Bake in a moderate oven until crisp. Split and spread with butter.

  32
 
Pop-overs
1 cup flour7/8 cup milk
1/4 teaspoon salt2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon melted butter
Mix salt and flour; add milk gradually, in order to obtain a smooth batter. Add egg, beaten until light, and butter; beat two minutes,—using egg-beater,—turn into hissing hot buttered iron gem pans, and bake thirty to thirty-five minutes in hot oven. They may be baked in buttered earthen cups, when the bottom will have a glazed appearance. Small round iron gem pans are best for Pop-overs.

  33
 
Graham Pop-overs
2/3 cup entire wheat flour7/8 cup milk
1/3 cup flour1 egg
1/4 teaspoon salt1/2 teaspoon melted butter
Prepare and bake as Pop-overs.

  34
 
Breakfast Puffs
1 cup flour1/2 cup milk
1/2 cup water
Mix milk and water; add gradually to flour, and beat with egg-beater until very light. Bake same as Pop-overs.

  35
 
Fadges
1 cup entire wheat flour1 cup cold water
Add water gradually to flour, and beat with egg-beater until very light. Bake same as Pop-overs.

  36
 
Zante Muffins
1/2 cup butter2 cups corn meal
3/4 cup sugar1 cup flour
3 eggs1 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups milk5 teaspoons baking powder.
1/2 cup currants
Cream the butter; add sugar, gradually, eggs well beaten, and milk; then add dry ingredients mixed and sifted, and currants. Bake in buttered individual tins.

  37
 
Maryland Biscuit
1 pint flour1 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup lardMilk and water in equal quantities
Southern Pupil
Mix and sift flour and salt; work in lard with tips of fingers, and moisten to a stiff dough. Toss on slightly floured board, and beat with rolling-pin thirty minutes, continually folding over the dough. Roll one-third inch in thickness, shape with round cutter two inches in diameter, prick with fork, and place on a buttered tin. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven.

  38

GRIDDLE-CAKES
Sour Milk Griddle-cakes
21/2 cups flour2 cups sour milk
1/2 teaspoon salt11/4 teaspoons soda
1 egg
Mix and sift flour, salt, and soda; add sour milk, and egg well beaten. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased hot griddle; cook on one side. When puffed, full of bubbles, and cooked on edges, turn, and cook other side. Serve with butter and maple syrup.

  39
 
Sweet Milk Griddle-cakes
3 cups flour1/4 cup sugar
11/2 tablespoons baking powder2 cups milk
1 teaspoon salt1 egg
2 tablespoons melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients; beat egg, add milk, and pour slowly on first mixture. Beat thoroughly, and add butter. Cook same as Sour Milk Griddle-cakes. Begin cooking cakes at once or more baking powder will be required.

  40
 
Entire Wheat Griddle-cakes
1/2 cup entire wheat flour3 tablespoons sugar
1 cup flour1 egg
3 teaspoons baking powder11/4 cups milk
1/2 teaspoon salt1 tablespoon melted butter
Prepare and cook same as Sweet Milk Griddle-cakes.

  41
 
Corn Griddle-cakes
2 cups flour1/3 cup sugar
1/2 cup corn meal11/2 cups boiling water
11/2 tablespoons baking powder11/4 cups milk
11/2 teaspoons salt1 egg
2 tablespoons melted butter
Add meal to boiling water, and boil five minutes; turn into bowl, add milk, and remaining dry ingredients mixed and sifted, then the egg well beaten, and butter. Cook same as other griddle-cakes.

  42
 
Rice Griddle-cakes I
21/2 cups flour1/4 cup sugar
1/2 cup cold cooked rice11/2 cups milk
1 tablespoon baking powder1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt2 tablespoons melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients. Work in rice with tips of fingers; add egg well beaten, milk, and butter. Cook same as other griddle-cakes.

  43
 
Rice Griddle-cakes II
1 cup milkYolks 2 eggs
1 cup warm boiled riceWhites 2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt1 tablespoon melted butter
7/8 cup flour
Pour milk over rice and salt, add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon color, butter, flour, and fold in whites of eggs beaten until stiff and dry.

  44
 
Bread Griddle-cakes
11/2 cups fine stale bread crumbs2 eggs
11/2 cups scalded milk1/2 cup flour
2 tablespoons butter1/2 teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons baking powder
Add milk and butter to crumbs, and soak until crumbs are soft; add eggs well beaten, then flour, salt, and baking powder mixed and sifted. Cook same as other griddle-cakes.

  45
 
Buckwheat Cakes
1/3 cup fine bread crumbs1/4 yeast cake
2 cups scalded milk1/2 cup lukewarm water
1/2 teaspoon salt13/4 cups buckwheat flour
1 tablespoon molasses
Pour milk over crumbs, and soak thirty minutes; add salt, yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water, and buckwheat to make a batter thin enough to pour. Let rise over night; in the morning, stir well, add molasses, one-fourth teaspoon soda dissolved in one-fourth cup lukewarm water, and cook same as griddle-cakes. Save enough batter to raise another mixing, instead of using yeast cake; it will require one-half cup.

  46
 
Waffles
13/4 cups flour1 cup milk
3 teaspoons baking powderYolks 2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon saltWhites 2 eggs
1 tablespoon melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk gradually, yolks of eggs well beaten, butter, and whites of eggs beaten stiff; cook on a greased hot waffle-iron. Serve with maple syrup.

  47
  A waffle-iron should fit closely on range, be well heated on one side, turned, heated on other side, and thoroughly greased before iron is filled. In filling, put a tablespoonful of mixture in each compartment near centre of iron, cover, and mixture will spread to just fill iron. If sufficiently heated, it should be turned almost as soon as filled and covered. In using a new iron, special care must be taken in greasing, or waffles will stick.   48
 
Waffles with Boiled Cider
Follow directions for making Waffles. Serve with BOILED CIDER. Allow twice as much cider as sugar, and let boil until of a syrup consistency.

  49
 
Rice Waffles
13/4 cups flour4 teaspoons baking powder
2/3 cup cold cooked rice1/4 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups milk1 tablespoon melted butter
2 tablespoons sugar1 egg
Mix and sift dry ingredients; work in rice with tips of fingers; add milk, yolk of egg well beaten, butter, and white of egg beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles.

  50
 
Virginia Waffles
11/2 cups boiling water11/4 tablespoons baking powder
1/2 cup white corn meal11/2 teaspoons salt
11/2 cups milkYolks 2 eggs
3 cups flourWhites 2 eggs
3 tablespoons sugar2 tablespoons melted butter
Cook meal in boiling water twenty minutes; add milk, dry ingredients mixed and sifted, yolks of eggs well beaten, butter, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles.

  51
 
Raised Waffles
13/4 cups milk1/4 cup lukewarm water
1 teaspoon salt2 cups flour
1 tablespoon butterYolks 2 eggs
1/4 yeast cakeWhites 2 eggs
Scald milk; add salt and butter, and when lukewarm, add yeast cake dissolved in water, and flour. Beat well; let rise over night; add yolks of eggs well beaten, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles. By using a whole yeast cake, the mixture will rise in one and one-half hours.

  52
 
Fried Drop Cakes
11/3 cups flour1/3 cup sugar
21/2 teaspoons baking powder1/2 cup milk
1/4 teaspoons salt1 egg
1 teaspoon melted butter
Beat egg until light; add milk, dry ingredients mixed and sifted, and melted butter. Drop by spoonfuls in hot, new, deep fat; fry until light brown and cooked through, which must at first be determined by piercing with a skewer, or breaking apart. Remove with a skimmer, and drain on brown paper.

  53
 
Rye Drop Cakes
2/3 cup rye meal1/2 teaspoon salt
2/3 cup flour2 tablespoons molasses
21/2 teaspoons baking powder1/2 cup milk
1 egg
Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk gradually, molasses, and egg well beaten. Cook same as Fried Drop Cakes.

  54
 
Raised Doughnuts
1 cup milk1/3 cup butter and lard mixed
1/4 yeast cake1 cup light brown sugar
1/4 cup lukewarm water2 eggs
1 teaspoon salt1/2 grated nutmeg
Flour
Scald and cool milk; when lukewarm, add the yeast cake dissolved in water, salt, and flour enough to make a stiff batter; let rise over night. In morning add shortening melted, sugar, eggs well beaten, nutmeg, and enough flour to make a stiff dough; let rise again, and if too soft to handle, add more flour. Toss on floured board, pat, and roll to three-fourths inch thickness. Shape with cutter, and work between hands until round. Place on floured board, let rise one hour, turn, and let rise again; fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Cool, and roll in powdered sugar.

  55
 
Doughnuts I
1 cup sugar4 teaspoons baking powder
21/2 tablespoons butter1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
3 eggs1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg
1 cup milk11/2 teaspoons salt
Flour to roll
Cream the butter, and add one-half sugar. Beat egg until light, add remaining sugar, and combine mixtures. Add three and one-half cups flour, mixed and sifted with baking powder, salt, and spices; then enough more flour to make dough stiff enough to roll. Toss one-third of mixture on floured board, knead slightly, pat, and roll out to one-fourth inch thickness. Shape with a doughnut cutter, fry in deep fat, take up on a skewer, and drain on brown paper. Add trimmings to one-half remaining mixture, roll, shape, and fry as before; repeat. Doughnuts should come quickly to top of fat, brown on one side, then be turned to brown on the other; avoid turning more than once. The fat must be kept at a uniform temperature. If too cold, doughnuts will absorb fat; if too hot, doughnuts will brown before sufficiently risen. See rule for testing fat.

  56
 
Doughnuts II
4 cups flour1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
11/2 teaspoons salt1/2 tablespoon butter
13/4 teaspoons soda1 cup sugar
13/4 teaspoons cream of tartar1 cup sour milk
1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg1 egg
Put flour in shallow pan; add salt, soda, cream of tartar, and spices. Work in butter with tips of fingers; add sugar, egg well beaten, and sour milk. Stir thoroughly, and toss on board thickly dredged with flour; knead slightly, using more flour if necessary. Pat and roll out to one-fourth inch thickness; shape, fry, and drain. Sour-milk doughnuts may be turned as soon as they come to top of fat, and frequently afterwards.

  57
 
Doughnuts III
2 cups sugar2 teaspoons soda
4 eggs2 teaspoons salt
11/3 cups sour milk2 teaspoons baking powder
4 tablespoons melted butter1 teaspoon grated nutmeg
Flour
Mix ingredients in order given; shape, fry, and drain.

  58
 
Crullers
1/4 cup butter4 cups flour
1 cup sugar1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg
Yolks 2 eggs31/2 teaspoons baking powder
Whites 2 eggs1 cup milk
Powdered sugar and cinnamon
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, yolks of eggs well beaten, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Mix flour, nutmeg, and baking powder; add alternately with milk to first mixture; toss on floured board, roll thin, and cut in pieces three inches long by two inches wide; make four one-inch parallel gashes crosswise at equal intervals. Take up by running finger in and out of gashes, and lower into deep fat. Fry same as Doughnuts I.

  59
 
Strawberry Short Cake I
2 cups flour2 teaspoons sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder3/4 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt1/4 cup butter
Mix dry ingredients, sift twice, work in butter with tips of fingers, and add milk gradually. Toss on floured board, divide in two parts. Pat, roll out, and bake twelve minutes in a hot oven in buttered Washington pie or round layer cake tins. Split, and spread with butter. Sweeten strawberries to taste, place on back of range until warmed, crush slightly, and put between and on top of Short Cakes; cover top with Cream Sauce I.

  60
 
Strawberry Short Cake II
2 cups flour1 tablespoon sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder1/3 cup butter
1/2 teaspoon salt1/3 cup milk
Mix same as Strawberry Short Cake I. Toss and roll on floured board. Put in round buttered tin, and shape with back of hand to fit pan.

  61
 
Rich Strawberry Short Cake
2 cups flourFew grains nutmeg
1/4 cup sugar1 egg
4 teaspoons baking powder1/3 cup butter
1/2 teaspoon salt1/3 cup milk
Mix dry ingredients and sift twice, work in shortening with tips of fingers, add egg well beaten, and milk. Bake same as Strawberry Short Cake II. Split cake and spread under layer with Cream Sauce II. Cover with strawberries which have been sprinkled with powdered sugar; again spread with sauce, and cover with upper layer.

  62
 
Fruit Short Cake
1/4 cup butter1/4 cup milk
1/2 cup sugar1 cup flour
1 egg2 teaspoons baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and egg well beaten. Mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt, adding alternately with milk to first mixture. Beat thoroughly, and bake in a buttered round tin. Cool, spread thickly with sweetened fruit, and cover with Cream Sauce I or II. Fresh strawberries, peaches, apricots, raspberries, or canned quince or pineapple may be used. When canned goods are used, drain fruit from syrup and cut in pieces. Dilute cream for Cream Sauce with fruit syrup in place of milk.

  63
  Any shortcake mixture may be made for individual service by shaping with a large biscuit cutter; or mixture may be baked in a shallow cake pan, centre removed and filled with fruit, and pieces baked separately to introduce to represent handles.   64

CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  BREAD AND BREAD MAKING CEREALS  
 
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