E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
George (St.) (g soft).
Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall, ii. 323, asserts that the patron saint of England was George of Cappadocia, the turbulent Arian Bishop of Alexandria, torn to pieces by the populace in 360, and revered as a saint by the opponents of Athanasius; but this assertion has been fully disproved by the Jesuit Papebroch, Milner, and others.
That St. George is a veritable cháracter is beyond all reasonable doubt, and there seems no reason to deny that he was born in Armorica, and was beheaded in Diocletians persecution by order of Datianus, April 23rd, 303. St. Jerome (331420) mentions him in one of his martyrologies; in the next century there were many churches to his honour. St. Gregory (540604) has in his Sacramentary a Preface for St. Georges Day; and the Venerable Bede (672735), in his martyrology, says, At last St. George truly finished his martyrdom by decapitation, although the gests of his passion are numbered among the apocryphal writings.
In regard to his connection with England, Ashmole, in his History of the Order of the Garter, says that King Arthur, in the sixth century, placed the picture of St. George on his banners; and Selden tells us he was patron saint of England in the Saxon times. It is quite certain that the Council of Oxford in 1222 commanded his festival to be observed in England as a holiday of lesser rank; and on the establishment of the Order of the Garter by Edward III. St. George was adopted as the patron saint.
The dragon slain by St. George is simply a common allegory to express the triumph of the Christian hero over evil, which John the Divine beheld under the image of a dragon. Similarly, St. Michael, St. Margaret, St. Silvester, and St. Martha are all depicted as slaying dragons; the Saviour and the Virgin as treading them under their feet; and St. John the Evangelist as charming a winged dragon from a poisoned chalice given him to drink. Even John Bunyan avails himself of the same figure, when he makes Christian encounter Apollyon and prevail against him.
George (St.), the Red Cross Knight (in Spensers Faërie Queene, bk. i.), represents Piety. He starts with Una (Truth) in his adventures, and is driven into Wandering Wood, where he encounters Error, and passes the night with Una in Hypocrisys cell. Being visited by a false vision, the knight abandons Una, and goes with Duessa (False-faith) to the palace of Pride. He leaves this palace clandestinely, but being overtaken by Duessa is persuaded to drink of an enchanted fountain, when he becomes paralysed, and is taken captive by Orgoglio. Una informs Arthur of the sad event, and the prince goes to the rescue. He slays Orgoglio, and the Red Cross Knight, being set free, is taken by Una to the house of Holiness to be healed. On leaving Holiness, both Una and the knight journey towards Eden. As they draw near, the dragon porter flies at the knight, and St. George has to do battle with it for three whole days before he succeeds in slaying it. The dragon being slain, the two enter Eden, and the Red Cross Knight is united to Una in marriage.
St. George and the Dragon. According to the ballad given in Percys Reliques, St. George was the son of Lord Albert of Coventry. His mother died in giving him birth, and the new-born babe was stolen away by the weird lady of the woods, who brought him up to deeds of arms. His body had three marks; a dragon on the breast, a garter round one of the legs, and a blood-red cross on the arm. When he grew to manhood he first fought against the Saracens, and then went to Sylen, a city of Libya, where was a stagnant lake infested by a huge dragon, whose poisonous breath had many a city slain, and whose hide no spear nor sword could pierce. Every day a virgin was sacrificed to it, and at length it came to the lot of Sabra, the kings daughter, to become its victim. She was tied to the stake and left to be devoured, when St. George came up, and vowed to take her cause in hand. On came the dragon, and St. George, thrusting his lance into its mouth, killed it on the spot. The king of Morocco and the king of Egypt, unwilling that Sabra should marry a Christian, sent St. George to Persia, and directed the sophy to kill him. He was accordingly thrust into a dungeon, but making good his escape, carried off Sabra to England, where she became his wife, and they lived happily at Coventry together till their death.
A very similar tale is told of Hesionê, daughter of Laomdon. (See HESIONE, SEA MONSTERS.)
St. George he was for England, St. Denis was for France. This refers to the war-cries of the two nationsthat of England was St. George! that of France, Montjoye St. Denis!
Our ancient word of courage, fair St. George,
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons.
Shakespeare: Richard III., v. 3.
When St. George goes on horseback St. Yves goes on foot. In times of war lawyers have nothing to do. St. George is the patron of soldiers, and St. Ives of lawyers.
St. Georges Arm. The Hellespont is so called by the Catholic Church in honour of St. George, the patron saint of England. (Papebroch: Actes des Saints.)
St. Georges Channel. An arm of the Atlantic, separating Ireland from Great Britain; so called in honour of St. George, referred to above.
St. Georges Cross. Redon a white field.
St. Georges Day (April 23rd). A day of deception and oppression. It was the day when new leases and contracts used to be made.