E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
Crusades (2 syl.).
Holy wars in which the warriors wore a cross, and fought, nominally at least, for the honour of the cross. Each nation had its special colour, which, says Matthew Paris (i. 446), was red for France; white for England; green for Flanders; for Italy it was blue or azure; for Spain, gules; for Scotland, a St. Andrews cross; for the Knights Templars, red on white.
The seven Crusades.
(1) 10961100. Preached up by Peter the Hermit. Led by Godfrey of Bouillon, who took Jerusalem. As a result of this crusade, Geoffrey of Bouillon became the virtual king of Jerusalem.
(2) 11471149. At the instigation of St. Bernard. Led by Louis VII. and the Emperor Conrad. To secure the union of Europe.
(3) 11891193. Led by Richard Lion-heart. For knightly distinction. This was against Saladin or Salah-Eddin.
(4) 12021204. Led by Baldwin of Flanders and the doge. To glorify the Venetians.
(5) 1217. Led by John of Brienne, titular King of Jerusalem. To suit his own purpose.
(6) 12281229. Led by Frederick II. As a result, Palestine was ceded to Frederick (Kaiser of Germany), who was crowned king of Jerusalem.
(7) 12481254 and (8) 12681270. To satisfy the religious scruples of Louis IX.