E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
This word, says Defoe, is the Irish toruigh, used in the reig of Queen Elizabeth to signify a band of Catholic outlaws who haunted the bogs of Ireland. It is formed from the verb toruighim (to make sudden raids). Golius saysTORY,silvestris, montana, avis, homo, et utrumgue ullus haud ibi est (Whatever inhabits mountains and forests is a Tory). Lord Macaulay saysThe name was first given to those who refused to concur in excluding James from the throne. He further saysThe bogs of Ireland afforded a refuge to Popish outlaws, called tories. Toryhunting was a pastime which has even found place in our nursery rhymesI went to the wood and I killed a tory
F. Crossley gives as the derivation, Taobh-righ (Celtic), kings party.
H. T. Hore, in Notes and Queries, gives Tuath-righ, partisans of the king.
G. Borrow gives Tar-a-ri, Come, O king.
In 1832, after the Reform Act, the Tory party began to call themselves Conservatives, and after Gladstones Bill of Home Rule for Ireland, in 1886, the Whigs and Radicals who objected to the bill joined the Conservatives, and the two combined called themselves Unionists. In 1895 the Queen sent for Lord Salisbury, who formed a Unionist government.