E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
The greatest of the ancient philosophers, whose chief aim was to amend the morals of his countrymen, the Athenians. Cicero said of him that he brought down philosophy from the heavens to earth; and he was certainly the first to teach that the proper study of mankind is man. Socrates resisted the unjust sentence of the senate, which condemned to death the Athenian generals for not burying the dead at the battle of Arginusæ.
Who, firmly good in a corrupted state,
Against the rage of tyrants single stood
Socrates used to call himself the midwife of mens thoughts. Out of his intellectual school sprang those of Plato and the Dialectic system; Euclid and the Megaric; Aristippos and the Cyrenaic, Antisthenes and the Cynic.