The Master said: A gentleman has no rivalries-except perhaps in archery; and then, as bowing he joins the winners, or steps down to see the loser drink, throughout the struggle he is still the gentleman.
The Master said: I can speak of the manners of Hsia; but for Chi witnesses fail. I can speak of the manners of Yin; but for Sung witnesses fail. This is due to their dearth of books and great men. Were there enough of these, they would witness for me.
On entering the Great Temple, the Master asked how each thing was done. One said: Who says that the man of Tsous son has a knowledge of ceremony? On entering the Great Temple, he asked how each thing was done! On hearing this, the Master said: Such is the ceremony.
Duke Ting asked how a king should behave to his ministers; how ministers should serve their king? Confucius answered: A king should behave with courtesy to his ministers; ministers should serve their king faithfully.
Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo8 about the shrines of the guardian spirits. Tsai Wo answered: The Hsia Emperors grew firs round them; the men of Yin grew cypress; the men of Chou grew chestnut, meaning jest not over holy matters.9 On hearing this, the Master said: I do not speak of what is ended, chide what is settled, or find fault with what is past.
The Master said: How shallow was Kuan Chung!10 But, said one, was not Kuan Chung thrifty? Kuan owned San Kuei, and in his household none doubled offices, said the Master; was that thrift? At least Kuan Chung was versed in courtesy. The Master said: Kings screen their gates with trees; Kuan, too, had trees to screen his gate. When two kings make merry together, they have a stand for the turned-down cups; Kuan had a turned-down cup-stand too! If Kuan were versed in courtesy, who is not versed in courtesy?
The warden of Yi asked to see Confucius, saying: No gentleman has ever come here, whom I have failed to see. The followers presented him. On leaving he said: My lads, why lament your fall? The world has long been astray. Heaven will make of the Master a warning bell.
Note 7. Wang-sun Chia was minister of Wei, and more influential than his master. Kitchen God is less honourable than the God of the Home (the Roman lares), but since he sees all that goes on in the house, and ascends to Heaven at the end of the year to report what has happened, it is well to be on good terms with him. [back]
Note 9. Literally to cause the people to be in awe. The commentators are more than usually learned over the Masters anger. I attribute it to the foolishness of the pun, and translate accordingly. [back]
Note 10. Kung Chung (+B.C. 645), a famous man in his day, was chief minister to the Duke of Ch´i, whom he raised to such wealth and power, that he became the leading prince of the empire. His chief merit lay in crushing the barbarous frontier tribes. The rest of his work, being in the sand, died with him. [back]