Nonfiction > Lucy Hutchinson > Memoirs of Colonel Hutchinson
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Lucy Hutchinson (1620–1681).  Memoirs of Colonel Hutchinson.  1906.
 
The Life of John Hutchinson
[1644]
 
  But before his escape, upon the 15th of January, intelligence was brought that all forces in Newark were marched on a design upon Sleaford in Lincolnshire. The governor, not trusting that pretence, commanded all the soldiers and townsmen to sit up that night and expect them; and the next morning, being Tuesday, two of his intelligencers came and brought him word very early that the design was against Nottingham. 1 After them the horse scouts came in with the news of their approach, the enemy’s scouts and they having fired upon each other. Hereupon a strong alarum was given throughout the garrison, and a foot company sent down from the castle to the works, and the horse were there set with them, to dispute the enemy’s entrance into the town; but the horse perceiving the enemy’s body to be a great one, retreated to the castle, and the foot seeing them gone, and none of the townsmen come forth to their assistance, made also an orderly retreat back to the castle, in which there was not a man lost or wounded. The works being imperfect and quitted, were easily entered, though the cannon that played upon them from the castle took off wholly the second file of musketeers that entered the gates. The first was led up by Lieutenant-colonel Cartwright, who two days before had sent to the governor for a protection to come in and lay down arms. 2 The enemy being entered, possessed themselves of St. Peter’s church and certain houses near the castle, from whence they shot into the castle-yard and wounded one man and killed another, which was all the hurt that was done our men that day.  80
  The governor was very angry with the horse for coming up so suddenly, and stirred them up to so generous a shame, that they dismounted, and all took muskets to serve as foot, with which they did so very good service, that they exceedingly well regained their reputations. Having taken foot arms, the governor sent one of his own companies with part of them, and they beat the cavaliers out of the nearest lanes and houses, which they had possessed, and so made a safe way for the rest to sally out and retreat, as there should be occasion.  81
  When this was done, which was about noon, the governor sent out all the rest of the horse and foot, to beat them out of the town. Sir Charles Lucas, who was the chief commander of all the forces there, had prepared a letter to send up to the governor to demand of him the castle; or if he would not deliver it, that then he should send down the mayor and aldermen, threatening, that if they came not immediately, he would sack and burn the town. There were, at that time, above a thousand cavaliers in the town, and as many in a body without the town, to have beaten off Derby and Leicester forces, if they should have made any attempt to come in, to the assistance of their friends in Nottingham. On the other side the Trent, were all the forces Mr. Hastings could bring out, from his own garrison and Belvoir and Wiverton, to force the bridges. All the cavalier forces that were about the town, were about three thousand. When Sir Charles Lucas had written his letter, he could find none that would undertake to carry it to the castle, whereupon they took the mayor’s wife, and with threats, compelled her to undertake it; but just as she went out of the house from them, she heard an outcry, that ‘the roundheads were sallying forth’, whereupon she flung down their letter and ran away; and they came furiously upon them out of the castle, and surprised them; while they were secure the castle would not have made so bold an attempt. But the governor’s men chased them from street to street, till they had cleared the town of them, who run away confusedly: the first that went out shot their pistols into the thatched houses to have fired them, but by the mercy of God neither that, nor other endeavours they showed to have fired the town, as they were commanded, took effect. Between thirty and forty of them were killed in the streets, fourscore were taken prisoners, and abundance of arms were gathered up, which the men flung away in haste, as they ran; but they put some fire into a hay barn and hay mows, and all other combustible things they could discern in their haste, but by God’s mercy, the town, notwithstanding, was preserved from burning. Their horse faced the town in a valley where their reserve stood, while their foot marched away, till towards evening, and then they all drew off. Many of them died on their return, and were found dead in the woods and in the towns they passed through. Many of them, discouraged with this service, ran away, and many of their horses were quite spoiled: for two miles they left a great track of blood, which froze as it fell upon the snow, for it was such bitter weather that the foot had waded almost to the middle on snow as they came, and were so numbed with cold when they came into the town, that they were fain to be rubbed to get life into them, and in that condition were more eager of fires and warm meat than of plunder, which saved many men’s goods, and their security, that did not believe an enemy, who had unhandsomely, to speak truth, suffered them to enter the town without any dispute, would have durst, at such great odds, to have set upon driving them out. Indeed, no one can believe, but those that saw that day, what a strange ebb and flow of courage and cowardice there was in both parties that day. The cavaliers marched in with such terror to the garrison and such gallantry, that they startled not when one of their leading files fell before them all at once, but marched boldly over the dead bodies of their friends, under their enemies’ cannon, and carried such valiant dreadfulness about them, as made very courageous stout men recoil. Our horse, who ran away frighted at the sight of their foes, when they had breastworks before them, and the advantage of freshness to beat back assailants already vanquished with the sharpness of the cold and a killing march, within three or four hours, as men that thought nothing too great for them, returned fiercely upon the same men, after their refreshment, when they were entered into defensible houses. If it were a romance, one should say, after the success, that the heroes did it out of excess of gallantry, that they might the better signalize their valour upon a foe who was not vanquished to their hands by the inclemency of the season: but we are relating wonders of Providence, and must record this as one not to be conceived of, but by those who saw and shared in it. It was indeed a great instruction, that the best and highest courages are but the beams of the Almighty; and when he withholds his influence, the brave turn cowards, fear unnerves the most mighty, makes the most generous base, and great men to do those things they blush to think on: when God again inspires, the fearful and the feeble see no dangers, believe no difficulties, and carry on attempts whose very thoughts would, at another time, shiver their joints like agues. The events of this day humbled the pride of many of our stout men, and made them afterwards more carefully seek God, as well to inspire as prosper their valour; and the governor’s handsome reproaches of their faults, with, showing them the way to repair them, retrieved their straggling spirits, and animated them to very wonderful and commendable actions.  82
  The governor would not let his men pursue the rear, but thought they might, in the night, have completed their day’s work, if they had fallen into the enemy’s quarters, which he gave orders to the horse to do; but Colonel Thornhagh would not obey them, because they came from him, and so lost a great opportunity, and contented himself with praising God for the great deliverance of the day, wherein there was not one townsman that came in to the assistance of the soldiers.  83
  The next day, the governor called the town together, and represented to them the mercy of God and the malice of their enemies, who, without regard of any friends they had among them, came purposely to fire the town, which God alone preserved; and, having showed them their danger, he required they should be no longer slothful in their own defence, but should take arms to preserve their families and houses. He propounded to them, that if they would do so, they should choose their own captains. They, considering the just reasons and motives with which he urged them, at length resolved to join in their own defence, and chose four captains; 3 but the captains refusing, the soldiers that day went home unlisted, yet by the governor’s dexterity in managing them, he at last brought four hundred, whereof more than half were high malignants, to enlist themselves under one Mr. Coates, a minister, an honest, godly man, and Mr. Mason, 4 an attorney, a great cavalier, but a reserved, silent man, who, for an austere knit of his brow, and a grave, severe countenance, had the reputation of a wise man, but was known to be disaffected to the parliament, though cunning enough not to do anything that might expose him to sequestration. Into these men’s hands he put arms, and so ordered them, that at the last they grew fiercer in the service than those who were uprightly honest.  84
  The next month the Lord Chaworth sent a letter to the governor, acquainting him that he was sick, and desired a protection to come and remain at his own house, in order to make his peace with the parliament; which protection the governor gave him. 5  85
  The governor had acquainted the parliament with the late successes, whereupon they ordered a thousand pounds to be sent to the garrison out of the sequestrations of London, and the excise of the town to go to the payment of the garrison; but through Mr. Millington’s negligent prosecution, the thousand pounds never came. 6  86
  The governor went on again successfully in his employment, and began to endear himself to all the town as well as to the soldiery; which awakening White’s sleeping envy, he cast new plots to disturb him; and first made a motion to send to London for two hundred soldiers: to which the governor answered—If they were honest, there were men enough to keep the garrison; if they were not, to call in other forces was but to bait their treachery with a greater prize; and that to send for more force, while they had such slender maintenance for these, was to increase trouble without any benefit.  87
  The same afternoon 7 the committee sent the governor a warrant to be signed, which was before subscribed by four of them, White in the front. 8 The warrant was to this effect:
        ‘To MR. HOOPER, Engineer of the Garrison of Nottingham.
  ‘You are hereby required to make your present appearance to this committee, there to give an account, what you have done about the works of the town, and how far you have proceeded in them; how, and in what manner, and by what time you intend to finish them; and what materials are needful for the finishing of them, there being imminent danger to the garrison’.
  88
  As soon as the governor received the warrant, he took the engineer with him, and went to the committee, to whom said he, ‘Gentlemen, I received just now such a strange warrant from you, that I can impute it to nothing but a picked occasion for quarrel. If you desire to question anything in the fortifying of the town, I have not only brought the engineer, but am here myself to answer it: if there be money in his hands, let him give you an account of it; but concerning the fortifications, I conceive he is only to be accountable to me; therefore why this warrant should be made, I cannot tell, unless purposely to affront me; as for that imminent danger you pretend, it is utterly unknown to me, and if there be any, I ought to have been made acquainted with it, and desire now to understand it’. They answered, ‘Were they not in daily peril?’ He replied, ‘That was certain, but at this time none more imminent than usual that he knew of; and further desired them, if he had been negligent in those things which conduced to the safety of the town, that they would article against him, whatever they could accuse him of; if he had done nothing worthy of blame, he took it exceedingly ill, to be thus thwarted and affronted in his just and lawful command’. Upon replies and debate, White said, ‘If Hooper did not render them an account of his works, they would clap him by the heels’. Whereupon the governor, addressing to him only told him, ‘that from the first opening of his commission he had manifested his discontent, and that he had taken notice of his secret endeavours to oppose him, and was glad the humour was now so ripe as to vent itself; that for the time to come, since he saw his condescensions did but encourage them to wrest all things from him, and to question all his dues, he would now expect that full observance from them all, that was due from the officers of a garrison to the governor; that he expected the horse should receive orders from him, and that he would no more put up with such affronts and neglects as he had that very day received, when, calling for a muster, of the horse to have been sent out upon a very advantageable design a whole troop, unknown to him, was by the committee sent out for hay, whereby that opportunity was lost’. He told them further, ‘that protections charging officers and soldiers to forbear plunder, ought to be given only by him upon their certificate, and not by them; and’, said he, ‘Gentlemen, I received that affront from you lately, which no governor in the world, but myself, would have put up with; when at a public council of war, among all the officers, enough to have caused a mutiny, it was propounded how far my command extended, and questioned whether I could command horse in the garrison? And all of you, at a council of war, ordered that the booty taken should be at the disposal of the chief officer that went out; so that if a corporal went out he must dispose of the booty, which in all garrisons is the governor’s right to do’.  89
  While they were in this dispute, the lieutenant-colonel came in, and seconded his brother; and after some smart disputes on both sides, they parted for that night.  90
  The next morning 9 the committee sent for the governor, who coming to them, one of them drew a paper out of his pocket, and offered some propositions to the governor; which were, first, that the dispute between them might be silenced and kept private; next, that he would join with them, in a letter to Mr. Millington, to desire him to get the question decided by the close committee, What were the several powers of a governor and a committee? And, lastly, that he would draw up what he conceived his power to be. To this the governor replied, that for silencing the thing, he was very willing to do it; for sending to the close committee, he very well understood his own power, and if they questioned it, they might send whither they pleased, to satisfy themselves; for setting down the particulars wherein he conceived his power to consist, when he did anything, which they thought belonged not to him, let them call him to question where they pleased, and he should be ready to give an account of his actions, but he would not make himself so ridiculous as to send for satisfaction in unquestionable things; yet for their information he would go along with them, if any of them pleased, either to my Lord of Essex or my Lord Fairfax, to have the power of a governor decided. They told him the generals understood not the power of a committee so well as the parliament, and therefore wrote a letter to Mr. Millington with extraordinary commendations of the governor, yet desiring to know the extent of his power, and showed it to him. He told them, if they believed those things they wrote of him, he wondered whence all this discontent should arise, for he appealed to them all, whether, ever since he undertook the government, he had usurped any command over them, or done so much as the most inconsiderable act without acquainting them, and receiving their approbation; and what should ail them, he could not imagine, unless they were discontented at his being made governor; which if they were, they might thank themselves, who put it upon him, when he received nothing but trouble, expense, and danger in it. They all acknowledged his appeal true, and said they had desired his establishment in the government of the castle, as the man they esteemed most worthy of it and most fit for it. He told them, if the addition of the town grieved them, that was to be transferred on the parliament, who without his seeking had added that to him. One of them replied, they had so worthy an opinion of him, that they wished the assessing of the country too might be only put into his power. He said he should have been obliged to them had this proceeded from anything but discontent, and that if without his own seeking he should be honoured with that trust, as he was with this, he should endeavour to discharge it faithfully; but he rather desired it might continue in the hands it was, and if he were negligent to fetch in those assessments, which were given him, then let the blame lie on him; but for rating and assessing the towns, those who were acquainted with the country were fitted for it; and thus for the present it rested.  91
  The design they prevented by sending out the troop unknown to him, was, the saving the town of Southwell from being made a garrison for the king; 10 which, the town being unwilling to, sent word to the governor, that if he would come and assist them, they would join with him to beat out some soldiers that intended to fortify themselves there; but the horse, by reason of their employment, failing on those two days, and extraordinary ill weather coming after, that opportunity was lost: this was about the middle of February. Captain White continued still afterwards to prevent all designs whose events might in any way have conduced to the governor’s honour, not weighing what hindrance it was to the public service, which was a great vexation to the governor; but his courage was above their malice, and his zeal to the service carried him vigorously on, in all things which he could accomplish by his own officers and soldiers, who were more obedient to him; and, although this exercised his patience, yet was it also a spur to his diligence, and made his fidelity more illustrious, and kept him more in waiting upon God, and more strict in his watch over all his actions, because he knew how all his enemies watched for his fall.  92
  Upon the eleventh of February, Cornet Palmer, who had been prisoner at Newark, came home and told the governor that he had discovered in his prison a design intended about this time to surprise the bridge by Hacker’s soldiers, who were to come in the habit of market people the next Saturday. This intelligence was seconded, whereupon the governor sent his officers to command all the bridge soldiers to keep in their quarters that day: he commanded also all the horse in the town to be ready to go out upon the first sound of the trumpet, and gave orders for all the drums in the garrison to beat betimes in the morning; the lieutenant-colonel set a guard beyond the bridge, with charge strictly to examine all passengers. About eleven of the clock on Saturday, the 17th of February, they took twelve of them 11 upon the bridge, disguised like market men and women, with pistols, long knives, hatchets, daggers, and great pieces of iron about them; 12 whereupon they sent and acquainted the governor, who being himself on horseback at the works, went immediately down to the bridge, and commanded all the horse to come away and pursue them; but the horse commanders, being always slow in obeying his commands, came not till the enemy’s foot beyond the bridge, perceiving their fellows were taken upon the bridge, retired and got safe off; only nine, who were to have assassinated those at the bridge, and had advanced forwarder than the rest for that purpose, were overtaken, and with their captain leaped into the Trent to have saved themselves, of whom our men plucked four out of the water, five were drowned and the captain swam to shore on the other side. The governor was in doubt whether these men, taken in disguises, were to be released as prisoners of war, or executed as spies and assassins by martial law; but though he would not have cared if the bridge soldiers had turned them into the Trent when they took them, he afterwards released them all upon exchange, except one Slater, a soldier of his own that had run away to the enemy, and this day was taken coming into the town, with a montero 13 pulled close about his face, but denied that he was of the design; yet after, upon trial at a court-martial, he was condemned and executed. The governor had sent out some horse and foot, 14 to drive the grounds at the enemy’s garrison at Shelford, which they did, and from under the very works from which the enemy shot at them, brought away many beasts and horses, that belonged to the garrison, and brought them up into the castle-yard. The governor being then in the committee chamber, told them it was fit the soldiers should have a reward, whereupon it was ordered to give them six pounds, and the governor told the soldiers the committee had assigned them a reward. But when they came to receive it, Salusbury, the treasurer, tithed it out, and gave the soldiers a groat a piece, and sixpence a piece to the officers, which in all came but to forty shillings and odd money; which the soldiers, being madded at, flung back his money, and desired a council of war to do them right; which the governor assented to, and the next day the business being heard at a full council of all the officers of the garrison, it was determined by the unanimous vote of all but Mr. Salusbury, that as the enemy shot at them, when they took the booty, it did of right belong to the soldiers that fought for it, and so they had it. Whereupon Salusbury flung himself away from the board in a great huff and muttering, for which the governor rebuked him, and told him such carriage ought not to be suffered in him, who, as an officer, ought to have more respect for the place and them that sat there. After this about eighteen of the lieutenant-colonel’s men went out and met twenty-five men in arms; between them there was a brook, the bridge-men called to them, and asked of what side they were, and perceiving they were cavaliers, told them, after some little defies between them, 15 that though the number was unequal, they would fight with them; and passing over the brook, charged them, put them to flight, killed two of them, took eight prisoners, and twelve of their horses. Upon examination they were found to be northern gentlemen, who having enlisted themselves in the prince’s own troop, after the death of Sir Thomas Biron that commanded under the prince, were assigned to my Lord Wentworth, at which being discontented, they were now returning into their own country, being almost all of them gentlemen. Sir Richard Biron, for his brother’s memory exchanged them for prisoners of Nottingham, taken when the town was first surprised. 16  93
  At the end of this month, on the fast-day, the national covenant was taken, with a great solemnity, both by the soldiers and inhabitants, men and women, of the garrison. 17 This day, unexpectedly, came Sir Edward Hartup, with a thousand horse from Leicester and Derby, to which the governor added between five and six hundred; Sir Edward being appointed to command the party, should have gone with them to take Muscan Bridges, at Newark, before which place Sir John Meldrum was now come, with about seven thousand men, and had laid siege to it. The horse of Newark, as soon as the parliament’s forces came, made an escape over Muscam Bridge, which Sir Edward Hartup, having more mind to drink than to fight, lingering a day at Nottingham, 18 and then marching to no purpose against it, lost his opportunity of taking; yet God, by a providence, gave it up with 200 men that kept it to the parliament’s forces, who, had they then pursued their success, might have carried the town too, but it was not God’s time then to deliver the country of that pernicious enemy. The horse that were escaped out of Newark, went into all their garrisons in the Vale and Derbyshire, and gathered up all the force they could make, to about the number of two thousand, and with these they came and quartered near Nottingham; themselves and the country giving out that they were about four thousand.  94
  There was a fast kept at Nottingham, to seek God for his presence with our armies; and before the first sermon was ended the enemy’s horse came to the town side and gave a strong alarm, 19 and continued facing the town till night, at which time they returned to their quarters, and those horse that were in the garrison following their rear, gleaned up two lieutenants and two or three other officers. The next day the body marched just by the town side, and so passed over the river at Wilden Ferry. After they were gone from about Nottingham, the governor went down to the Leaguer, at Newark, where Sir John Meldrum had made all things ready for a general assault on the town; but at a council of war that was called in the field, it was determined that it should not then be, whereupon the governor of Nottingham returned to his garrison; who, coming to take his leave of Sir John Meldrum, Sir John intreated him that he would return again and be among them as much as he could, making a sad complaint of the envyings, heart-burnings, and dissensions that were among the several commanders, so that he had much ado to hold them together, and had great need of men of moderation and prudence to assist him, and to help to mediate among them. The forces that Sir John Meldrum commanded before this town, were gathered out of several associated counties, and the commanders were so emulous of one another, and so refractory to commands, and so piquing in all punctilios of superiority, that it galled the poor old gentleman to the heart; who, having commanded abroad, and been used to deal with officers that understood the discipline of war, was confounded among those who knew not how to obey any orders, but disputed all his commands, and lost their time and honour in a fruitless expedition, through their vain contentions; whereas, had they joined in the assault when he then would have made it, they might probably have carried the town, but missing that opportunity, they came off at last with loss and dishonour. While the governor was at the Leaguer, Sir John Meldrum told him, that Colonel Pierrepont had been with him, to get his hand to a paper, which should have testified, that the government of Nottingham did of right belong to him; but Sir John answered he could not testify any such thing, for it was his own act to confer that government where now it was; with which Colonel Pierrepont seemed very well satisfied at that time. When he could not prevail in this, he desired Sir John to set his hand to another paper, which should have certified, that in all things he had approved himself most firm and faithful to the service of the parliament. Sir John said he would not injure him so much as to make any such certificate of a thing not called into question; but if there should be any doubt of it, he should be ready to do him all right. Colonel Pierrepont, moreover, went to the governor’s soldiers, that had formerly been of his regiment, and giving them twenty shillings to drink, told them he was to be governor of the town, and would shortly come among them.  95
  Sir Edward Hartup was sent with the party of horse he before had at Muscam Bridge, to pursue those that were gone out of Newark, and fight with them, and hinder their joining with Prince Rupert, who was expected to come and to raise the siege; and when Sir Edward came into Leicestershire the whole country rose with him, and the governor of Leicester brought out foot and cannon to assist him. 20 His forlorn hope being of the Nottingham horse, charged the enemy’s forlorn hope and routed them, and then fell into their body of foot, which they had drained out of their little garrisons, and routed them also, and if Sir Edward Hartup would have come on with his body, they had all been cut off; but the knight would not stir, but commanded the forlorn hope to retreat, who had slain and taken many prisoners of the enemy, and among them Jammot, that had lately made his escape out of Nottingham Castle. The enemy perceiving Sir Edward would not hurt them, rallied again and joined with Prince Rupert; of which, as soon as Sir Edward had intelligence, he went back to Newark with such shameful haste, that he quitted Melton with all the prisoners the forlorn hope had lately taken. The Leicester forces, discouraged at this carriage, returned to their garrisons and marched no more with him. 21  96
  The governor of Nottingham kept out spies upon the enemy’s motions, and sent word to the Leaguer, but the gentlemen there were so over-confident, they would not believe any force could come to raise their siege. At length, the governor of Nottingham being there himself, word was brought that Prince Rupert was come to Ashby; wherefore he, fearing some attempt upon his garrison, to divert the forces at the siege, returned home with his brother to look to their charge. It was late upon Wednesday night when the governor came home, and was certainly informed that Prince Rupert was, that afternoon, marched by to raise the siege with about six thousand men. 22 Immediately the governor sent two men, excellently well mounted upon his own horses, to carry the alarm to Sir John Meldrum, who by two of the clock on Thursday morning delivered him their letters, and he presently prepared to fight with the prince, who about nine or ten of the clock came. Sir John had drawn all his ordnance into the walls of a ruined house, called the Spittle, and the horse were the first to charge the enemy. 23 Colonel Thornhagh and Major Rossiter gave them a very brave charge, routed those whom they first encountered, and took prisoners Major-general Gerrard and others, and had they been seconded by the rest of the horse, had utterly defeated the prince’s army; but the Lincolnshire troops fled away before they ever charged, and left Colonel Thornhagh engaged, with only his own horse, with the prince’s whole body, where, they say, he charged the prince himself, and made his way and passed very gallantly through the whole army, with a great deal of honour, and two desperate wounds, one in the arm, the other in the belly. After the Lincolnshire horse were run away, Sir John Meldrum sent the Derby horse and the Nottingham foot, with two companies of Col. King’s, to keep Muscam Bridge, and Mollanus, the Derbyshire major, to be their commander. Colonel Thornhagh was sent home in a wagon to Nottingham. Sir John himself, with the few horse and dragoons that were left from Nottingham and Derby, being about five hundred, went into the Spittle to his foot. The prince lost more than Sir John in the skirmish, but as soon as ever Sir John had betaken himself to the Spittle, the prince sent horse and foot between him and Muscam Bridge. 24 The horse that were left there to guard the foot ran every man away, so that they had not a horse left to fetch them any provision. The major that commanded them told them that he would go to the next town to buy them some bread, and with that pretence came away and never saw them more. The enemy was endeavouring to make a passage over the river, to come on the other side of them and encompass them, which when they saw and considered that they had no order what to do, nor bread for one meal, nor bullet more than their muskets were loaded withal, and that it was impossible for them to come off if they stayed till the enemy enclosed them; and further discovering that their friends in the Spittle were in parley, they conceived it their best way to come home, which they plotted so to do that the enemy might not perceive it till they were out of their reach; so leaving lighted matches and squibs laid at certain distances to deceive the enemy, they came safe home. 25 But within less than half an hour after they were gone the enemy came on the other side, and not missing them till morning, by reason of the squibs, they pursued them not, by which means they came safe to Nottingham; which was a very seasonable mercy, for had they stayed the choicest arms in the garrison had been lost, and the best and most confiding soldiers disarmed. For Sir John agreed upon articles with the prince, to deliver up the Spittle wherein he lay, with all the muskets, ordnance, and ammunition in it; the foot soldiers to march away with colours flying, swords and pikes, the horsemen with their horses and swords, and all the commanders with their pistols; but the prince broke all these conditions, and pillaged them to their shirts, and sent many captains quite naked away. 26  97
  The committee of Nottingham now began again to mutter at the governor, but he would not take notice of it, but applied himself to take care for the securing of his town, where the enemy now daily threatened to come. So he floated the meadows on the Line side, where there was no fortification, and raised a fort in the midst of the meadows to preserve the float, and fortified the Trent bridges more strongly; and, expecting the enemy every hour, was forced to let the work go on all the Lord’s day. When, calling the captains together to consult on the best way of preparing for their defence, Mason, the new town captain, took this time to revive the old mutiny, and said the townsmen would not stand to their works except the ordnance were drawn down from the castle to the town works; the governor rebuked him for this unseasonable insolence, as he and his men were, all the time of this great exigence, so backward that they were rather an obstruction than assistance, and there was much ado to get them either to the works or the guards. Indeed such a blow was given to the parliament interest, in all these parts, that it might well discourage the ill-affected, when even the most zealous were cast down and gave up all for lost; but the governor, who in no occasion ever let his courage fall, but, when things were at the lowest, recollected all his force, that his own despondency might not contribute anything to his malicious fortune, at this time animated all the honest men, and expressed such vigour and cheerfulness, and such steadfast resolution, as disappointed all the malignants of their hopes. The wives, children, and servants of such as were in the enemy’s garrisons and armies, he thought it not safe to suffer any longer to be in the town in such a time of danger, and therefore commanded them all to depart, not sparing even some of his own relations; but though this was done by the concurrence of the whole committee, yet some of them, who were loath the town should lose any that wished ill to the governor and his undertakings, privately, without his consent or knowledge, brought back several persons that were very dangerous to the place.  98
  And now, upon the twenty-fifth day of March, a letter was brought to the governor from all the commissioners at Newark telling him that the parliament’s forces had quitted Gainsborough, Lincoln, and Sleaford; and that the prince intended to advance against Nottingham, and to fire the town, if he did not immediately throw down the works, which if he should not do, the world would then take notice of him as the only ruin of his native country. 27 To which the governor returned them answer, that as he never engaged himself in this service, with respect to the success or actions of other places, so though the whole kingdom were quit besides this town, he would yet maintain it as long as he was able, and he trusted that God would preserve it in his hands; but if it perished, he was resolved to bury himself in the ruins of it, being confident that God would after vindicate him to have been a defender, and not a destroyer of his country. The copy of the letter which the Newark commissioners sent to the governor, was sent to one Francis Cooke, a malignant inhabitant of the town, subscribed with all the commissioners’ hands, and desiring him to communicate it to the whole town. The governor, having taken what care he could at home, sent immediately to the parliament and to the Earl of Essex, acquainting them with the desperate condition of the place; and desiring that they would send him seasonable relief, if the prince should besiege him, promising to employ his utmost endeavour to hold it for them, or to lose himself with it. My lord general returned a very civil encouraging letter, and now the prince, two days after the letter, was advanced within three miles of Nottingham; when it pleased God to divert him from coming against the town by letters which were brought him from Oxford, which occasioned his hasty return into the south, without any attempt upon the place, which, by God’s mercy, was thus delivered from this threatening danger. 28 However, their enemies at Newark, by the late success, were very much exalted, and by the quitting of so many parliament garrisons about them, increased in power, and were left at leisure to turn all their designs against Nottingham, which being so infirm within itself, the governor had a very difficult task to preserve it; while the disaffected, who were subtle, did not clearly declare themselves, but watched all opportunities to work the governor’s disturbance, by fomenting the ill-humours of the factious committee-men and priests; for they now took occasion to fall in with them, upon the governor’s release of his chief cannoniers out of prison, into which he, by the instigation of the ministers and the godly people, whom they animated almost to mutiny, had put them, for separating from the public worship, and keeping little conventicles in their own chamber. It was with some reluctancy he had committed them, for the men, though of different judgments in matter of worship, were otherwise honest, peaceable, and very zealous and faithful to the cause; but the ministers were so unable to suffer their separation and spreading of their opinions, that the governor was forced to commit them; yet during this great danger, he thought it not prudent to keep them discontented and then employ them, and therefore set them at liberty, for which there was a great outcry against him as a favourer of separatists. 29  99
  It will not be amiss, in this place, to carry on the parliament story, that we may the better judge things at home, when we know the condition of affairs abroad. The queen, being suffered to pass through Nottinghamshire by those forces which were sent down thither to have prevented her, joined with Prince Rupert and came to the king; and was by the parliament voted traitor for many actions, as pawning the crown-jewels in Holland, encouraging the rebellion in Ireland, heading a papistical army in England, etc.  100
  The Earl of Essex’s army lay sick about London for recruits; Sir William Waller, after many victories in the west, was at length totally routed, and returned to London, Prince Maurice and Sir Ralph Hopton having recovered and possessed almost the whole west of England for the king. The north my Lord Newcastle’s army commanded so fully, that they were advanced into Nottingham and Lincolnshire, and the adjacent counties. The parliament, being in this low condition, had agreed with Scotland, and entered into a solemn national league and covenant, which was taken throughout both kingdoms; and the king had made a cessation of arms with the Irish rebels, and brought over the English army, that had been honoured with so many successes against them, to serve him here. But God never blessed his affairs after they came to him, though indeed before their arrival God had begun to turn the scale; for the city of Gloucester stopping, by its faithful and valiant resistance, the career of the king’s victories, after Bristol and Exeter and all the west was lost, the king, disdaining to leave it behind him unvanquished, sat down before it, which employed him and his whole army, till the Earl of Essex and his recruited army, assisted with the London auxiliaries, came and relieved it, and pursued the king’s army to an engagement at Newbury; where the parliament obtained a great and bloody victory, and the king for ever lost that opportunity he lately had of marching up to London, and in probability of subduing the parliament. My Lord Newcastle, by a like error, about the same time, setting down before Hull, missed the opportunity of wholly gaining all those neighbouring counties and much wasted his great and victorious army, being forced to rise with loss and dishonour from the unyielding town. After the fight at Newbury, Sir William Waller, having gotten a new army, had divers successes with it, and at length totally routed all Hopton’s army, about the time that Prince Rupert raised the siege at Newark, and was the occasion that called the prince so hastily out of those counties. 30  101
  The Earl of Essex pursuing the war, had a design to block up Oxford, where the king was, and accordingly attempted it, he on one side and Waller on the other; but the king, with a few light horse, escaped out of the town, and went to join with his greater armies; which being done, Essex marched further into the west, and in Cornwall was besieged, where he lost all his foot, ammunition, and ordnance, and came dishonourably home to London. Waller unsuccessfully followed the king, and the parliament’s affairs, all that summer, were very unprosperous in the west, south, and midland counties, but contrary in the north, where the Scotch army, under General Leven, advanced, took some towns and forts, and wasted the Earl of Newcastle’s army more by their patient sufferance of the ill weather and martial toil, which the English could not so well abide, than by fighting. Sir Thomas Fairfax, having again taken the field with his father, after a miraculous victory they had gained over the Irish army which the king had brought over, joined the Scots; and the Earl of Manchester, having raised a force in the associated counties, with which he made an expedition to Lincoln, having Colonel Cromwell for his lieutenant-general, marched into Yorkshire, and uniting with the other two armies, they all besieged the Earl of Newcastle in York. To raise this siege, Prince Rupert came with a great army out of the south; the besiegers rose to fight with the prince, and Newcastle drew all his force out of York to join with him, when both armies, on a great plain called Marston Moor, had a bloody encounter, and the Scots and Lord Fairfax had been wholly routed, and the battle lost, but that Cromwell, with five thousand men which he commanded, routed Prince Rupert, restored the other routed parliamentarians, and gained the most complete victory that had been obtained in the whole war. The victors possessed all the prince’s ordnance, carriages, and baggage; whereupon the prince fled, with as many as he could save, back into the south; the Earl of Newcastle with some of his choice friends, went into Germany, and left Sir Thomas Glenham governor of York, which he soon after surrendered, and then the three generals parted; Leven went back into the north, and took the town of Newcastle, Fairfax remained in Yorkshire, and Manchester returned into the south, taking in many small garrisons by the way as he passed through the counties.  102
  The queen went that summer into France, to solicit foreign aid for her husband, but ineffectually; meanwhile new treaties were carried on between the king and parliament, but to no purpose; for the king’s false dealing and disingenuity therein was so apparent that they came to nothing, but a further discovery of the king’s falsehood, and favour of the Irish rebels, with whom he now employed Ormond to treat and conclude a peace. This treaty was that at Uxbridge, where commissioners met on both sides, but effected nothing; for the parliament itself began to grow into two apparent factions of presbyterians and independents, and the king had hope, by their divisions, to prevail for the accomplishment of his own ends. 31  103
  It was too apparent how much the whole parliament cause had been often hazarded, how many opportunities of finishing the war had been overslipped by the Earl of Essex his army; and it was believed that he himself, with his commanders, rather endeavoured to become arbiters of war and peace, than conquerors for the parliament; for it was known that he had given out such expressions. Wherefore those in the parliament, who were grieved at the prejudice of the public interest, and loath to bring those men to public shame, who had once well merited it of them, devised to new-model the army; and an ordinance was made, called the Self-denying Ordinance, whereby all members of parliament, of both houses, were discharged of their commands in the army. Cromwell had a particular exception, when Essex, Manchester, and Denbigh, surrendered their commissions; and Sir Thomas Fairfax was made general of the new-modelled army, Cromwell lieutenant-general, and Skippon major-general. The army was reduced to twenty-one thousand, who prosecuted the war not with design of gain and making it their trade, but to obtain a righteous peace and settlement to the distracted kingdom, and accordingly it succeeded in their hands. 32  104
  To return to Nottingham: after the prince had marched away out of the country, the enemy without was still designing against the garrison, and the governor’s enemies within were still perplexing all his affairs. Upon the eleventh of May, a letter was found by a wench in the night-time, dropped in the shoemakers’ booths; which letter was directed to Sir Richard Biron, informing him that ‘the business between them went on with good success, and that the time drawing on, it behoved him to be very diligent, and desiring him to burn the letter’; which was subscribed, ‘Your careful servant, A. C.’; and a postscript written, ‘Fail nothing by any means, and there should be no neglect in me’. The governor took all courses that could be imagined to discover this person, but could never find him out. 33 About this time some troopers going by a house, where one Henry Wandall, a debauched malignant apothecary, had lived (but the house was now empty, and he had the key of it), they perceived a smoke to come out of it, and went in and found some kindled sticks, laid in a potsherd, just by a rotten post, under the staircase with hurds 34 and other combustible things about it, which it was evident were put there to fire the house, but for what reason, or by whom, was not discovered.  105
  The governor hearing of some troops of the enemy in the Vale, had a design to go thither, and acquainted the committee with it; telling them he would take out all the horse, and himself march with the body, and leave a foot company and thirty horse behind him at the bridges, so as by that time he was marched by Wiverton, which would give Shelford the alarm, the thirty horse, which were more than Shelford had to send out, should face the house on that side next Nottingham, and the foot should march a private way through the closings; 35 so that if Shelford’s horse or foot should come forth against those thirty horse, the foot might get between them and home, or take any advantage that was offered. All this the committee very well approved, and so it was resolved to put it in execution the next night after, because it would take some time to provide horses of the musketeers. The governor coming out of the committee, met Captain White upon the parade in the castle-yard, and acquainted him with the design, who, with a dejected countenance and a faint voice, pretended to approve it, but desired the thirty horse who were to stay some hours behind, might be of his troop; to which the governor assented to gratify his desire, though he told him, he was very loath to spare any of that troop, who were old soldiers and well acquainted with the country; 36 but he desired him the rest might not fail to be ready. The captain promised they should, and so departed. When the governor had made ready all the horse and dragoons, and was himself just ready to march out with them, being at Colonel Thornhagh’s house, White came in; the governor, not doubting of his intention to go, asked him if his troop were ready? He replied, ‘They are out upon service; thirty’, said he, ‘are gone by your consent, and the rest went to fetch in a malignant at Ekering; some few odd ones remain, which you may have if you will’. The governor desired him to go himself and assist him; the captain desired to be excused, for ‘to what purpose should he go when his troop was not there?’ The governor went from thence to his own lodgings, and meeting the committee, acquainted them how White had served him, who seemed to resent it very ill at that time; and while they were discoursing of it, White’s officer came up with warrants to be signed for hay for the quarters, which being offered the governor, he tore, and said he would sign no warrants for such a disorderly troop, as would do no service but what they list, whose officers knew neither how to give nor obey commands.  106
  Notwithstanding this discouragement, to want eighty of his best men, the governor went out with the rest, and when he had drawn them into the Trent Lanes, one of his spies came in with intelligence that at a town in the Vale, called Sierston, and at another next it, called Elston, there were two hundred horse quartered, who being come in weary and secure, might easily be surprised that night. The governor, calling the captains together, 37 imparted the intelligence, and they were all forward to go on in the design, except Captain Pendock, 38 who persuaded much against it; but while they were discoursing another intelligencer came in, to second the former; whereupon the governor told the captains, that if they would go, he was resolved to do something that night, and because Captain Pendock was best acquainted with that side of the country, he appointed him to lead on the forlorn hope, which accordingly he did, but with such sloth and muttering, that in two or three miles’ riding, the governor was forced to send up some officers to him, to hasten him on. Neither was this from cowardice, but only humour and faction, for the man was stout enough when he had a mind to it, but now he rid along, muttering that it was to no purpose, and when he came to Saxondale Gorse, purposely lost himself and his forlorn hope; which the governor missing, was much troubled, fearing that by some misadventure they might have been enclosed and cut off between the enemies’ garrisons; but when they came to Saxondale Lane, Pendock and his forlorn hope were found safe in the rear of the body. The governor perceiving Pendock’s backwardness, had sent out some parties, 39 one troop under Captain-lieutenant Palmer, and another party with Cornet Peirson, to some near towns, to execute some of the committee’s warrants, in fetching in delinquents; when the cornet came back with an alarum that two or three hundred horse were quartered at Elston and Sierston, which he must either fight with or retreat. Captain Pendock was again wonderful unwilling to go on, and said it would be day before they should come there; but the governor bade those that would, follow him, for he would go; and accordingly he went, and when he came to the town, drew up his men at the town’s end in a body, from which he sent in some parties, to fall into the town, himself staying with the body between them and Newark, to defend them from any of the enemies that might have come upon them: so they brought out two captain-lieutenants, 40 some cornets, and other gentlemen of quality, thirty troopers, and many more horses and arms; Captain Thimbleby, absolutely refusing quarter, was killed. The governor sent into the town to command all his men immediately away; but a lieutenant and cornet making not haste to obey, 41 while they stayed for some drink, were surprised by a party that came from Newark, before the corporal, the governor had sent to fetch them off, was well out of the town; but with those he had taken, and all the booty, and many horses and beasts fetched from malignants in the enemies’ quarters, the governor came safe home, to the great discontent of Captain White, who was something out of countenance at it. This may serve, instead of many more, to show how hard a task he had to carry on the service, with such refractory, malicious persons under him.  107
  About this time it happened, that the engineer being by, Captain Pendock took occasion to rail at the town-works, and Hooper making answers which drew on replies, Pendock struck him, whereupon the man, angry, laid his hand upon his sword and half drew it out, but thrust it in again. The maid ran affrighted into the kitchen, where was one Henry Wandall, who presently called some musketeers, disarmed Mr. Hooper, and sent him prisoner to the governor; who, asking him upon what account he came so, he told him he had no reason to accuse himself; if those that sent him had anything against him he was ready to answer it. After the governor had expected till about midnight and nothing came, he sent for Wandall, and inquiring why and by whose authority he committed Mr. Hooper prisoner? He answered, ‘for drawing his sword, he, as an officer of the garrison, had sent him up’. The governor asked who made him an officer? and taking it upon him, why he did not send up both parties, but only one in a quarrel? and he being able to give no answer, but such as showed it was done out of malice, the governor committed him for his insolency, who being but a common soldier, presumed to make an officer prisoner, without rendering an account to the governor, and let the other engaged in the quarrel go free. The next day after this, Plumptre came to the Trent bridges, where, being stopped, he sent up a pass which he had procured from my lord general, to come and stay in the town during his own pleasure; which, when the governor saw he sent him word, that in regard of my lord general’s pass he might stay at his own house, but bade him take heed, as he would answer it, that he meddled not to make any mutiny or commotion in the garrison; to which he sent an insolent reply, that he was glad the governor was taught manners; he was come to town for some business, and when he had occasion he would repair to the committee. The committee, hearing this, were very sensible of his insolent carriage, and drew up articles against him, which were signed by six of their hands, and sent up to Mr. Millington to be preferred against him in the house of parliament, and to be showed to my lord general, as the lieutenant-colonel should see occasion; whom the governor sent immediately to the general, to acquaint him with the reason why Dr. Plumptre had been forced to procure his pass for his protection. The governor took this occasion to send to the general about his cannoniers, whom some days before he had been forced to confine as prisoners to their chamber till the general’s pleasure could be known concerning them; for, at the instigation of Captain Palmer, all the ministers in town, 42 and, to make the cry the louder, certain loose malignant priests, which they had gotten to join with them, had most violently urged, in a petition to the committee, that these men might be turned out of the town for being separatists; so that the governor was forced, against his will, to confine them to prevent mutiny, though they were otherwise honest, obedient, and peaceful. After the lieutenant-colonel was gone, with letters concerning these matters, to the general, Plumptre behaved himself most insolently and mutinously, and he and Mason entering into a confederacy, had contrived some articles against the governor for committing Wandall; 43 but when they tried and found they could do no good with them, Mason came to the governor and was most saucily importunate for his release, which, by reason of the insolent manner of seeking it, the governor would not grant.  108
  The general, upon the governor’s letters, sent down a letter to Plumptre, to discharge him the garrison, and another to the governor to release the cannoniers; which he accordingly did, to the satisfaction of his own conscience, which was not satisfied in keeping men prisoners for their consciences, so long as they lived honestly and inoffensively. But it caused a great mutiny in the priests against him, and they blew up as many of their people as they could, to join in faction against the governor, not caring now what men they entered into confederacy with, nor how disaffected to the cause, so they were but bitter enough against the separatists; which the cunning malignants perceiving, they now all became zealots, and laughed in secret to see how they wrought these men to ruin their own cause and champions.  109
  Plumptre not taking notice of the general’s letters, the governor sent him word he expected he should obey them and depart. Plumptre replied, his business was done, and he would go; but in spite of his teeth he would have a guard. 44 The lieutenant-colonel would have put in the articles into the parliament, which the committee had sent up against Plumptre, but Mr. Millington pretending all kindness and service to the governor, would needs undertake it, and desired the lieutenant-colonel to trouble none of the governor’s friends in any business he had to do, but to leave it in his hands, who would employ all his powers, and serve him with all vigilance and faithfulness, against all persons whatsoever; and whereas he heard the governor had some thoughts of coming to London, he wished him not to trouble himself, but to charge him with anything he had to do. Notwithstanding all this, the governor went to London, having some occasions thither. A little before his going, he and the rest of the committee had required Mr. Salusbury, their treasurer, to give in his accounts, which he being either unwilling or unable to do, he bent his utmost endeavours to raise a high mutiny and faction against the governor; and Captain White was never backward in any mischief; these, with Plumptre and Mason, made a close confederacy, and called home Chadwick to their assistance, having engaged the persecuting priests and all their idolaters, upon an insinuation of the governor’s favour to separatists. During Colonel Thornhagh’s sickness, the governor undertook the command of his horse regiment, while it was quartered in the garrison; and made the men live orderly, and march out upon designs more frequently than they used to do when their colonel was well, upon whose easiness they prevailed to do what they list; and some of them, who were great plunderers, were connived at, which the governor would by no means suffer. Wherefore these men were, by the insinuations of their officers and the wicked part of the committee, drawn into the faction, which was working in secret awhile, and at last broke into open prosecutions. They had determined that as soon as the governor was gone, White, the devil’s exquisite solicitor, should also follow to London, but knew not what to do for a pretence to send him upon the public purse; when wickedness, which never long wants the opportunity it waits for, found one soon out, for the committee of both kingdoms had sent a command for all the horse in Nottingham to repair to Sir John Meldrum in Lancashire; 45 the town was put upon a hasty petition that their horse might not go, and Captain White must carry it, who pretended to have known nothing of it half an hour before, yet he was ready, and Dr. Plumptre, too, prepared to make good his brags, and go with his convoy. Presently after he was gone, the engine of mischief comes to town, Colonel Chadwick, whom Mr. Salusbury receives with great joy and exultance, boasting, to use his own words, that they would now mump the governor. At the mayor of the town’s house he was entertained with much wine, whereof Mr. Ayscough, a committee man, having taken a pretty large proportion, coming that night to supper to the castle, told the lieutenant-colonel and the governor’s wife, that he would advise them to acquaint the governor there was mischief hatching against him, and that Chadwick was come to town on purpose to effect it, which though the fellow discovered in his drink, was true enough, and he himself was one of the conspiring wicked ones.  110
  To fortify their party, in all haste they endeavoured to raise a new troop of dragoons, under one Will Hall, a debauched malignant fellow, and therefore one of the governor’s mortal enemies; but some of the honester townsmen perceiving the design, and not yet being seduced, would not raise him any horse, so at that season the troop was not formed.  111
  And now Captain White came home, when it was observed that after his return he would not allow the governor that name, but only called him Colonel Hutchinson, and when any one else termed him governor, would decline the acknowledgment of that name; then cajoling his fellow horse-officers and the troopers, they, through his insinuations, everywhere began to detract from the governor, and to magnify Captain White, and not only to derogate from the governor, but from all persons that were well-affected to him. Now was there a petition drawn up to be presented to the committee of both kingdoms, desiring that Mr. Millington might be sent down to compose the differences which were in the garrison. The lieutenant-colonel and some others refusing to sign it, Captain White told them it was a pretence, which Mr. Millington desired the favour of them that they would make, to obtain leave for him to come down and visit his wife and children, whom he had a longing desire to see, and knew not any other way to bring it about. The gentlemen, to gratify Mr. Millington, signed it; and he himself at London, with the same pretext, obtained the governor’s hand to it, while the governor, deceived by his high and fair professions of service and kindness to him, never entertained any suspicion of his integrity; and this was the greatest of the governor’s defects, through the candidness and sincerity of his own nature he was more unsuspicious of others, and more credulous of fair pretenders, than suited with so great a prudence as he testified in all things else. Nothing awakened jealousy in him but gross flattery, which, when he saw any one so servile as to make, he believed the soul that could descend to that baseness might be capable of falsehood; but those who were cunning attempted him not that way, but put on a face of fair, honest, plain friendship, with which he was a few times, but not often in his life, betrayed. At Mr. Millington’s entreaty the governor released Wandall, but would have prosecuted the committee’s petition against Plumptre, which Mr. Millington most earnestly persuaded him not to do, but desired that he would permit him to come and live quietly in his own house, upon engagement that he should not raise nor foment any mutiny nor faction in the garrison, or intermeddle with any of the affairs thereof. The governor was easily wrought to assent to this also, but Plumptre refused to enter into such an engagement for quiet behaviour, and so for that time came not to town. There was again a new design against the garrison by the enemy discovered, and a spy taken, who owned a soldier in the major’s company had enlisted himself on purpose to effect this mischief; but through careless custody the spy escaped the day that the garrison were celebrating their joy for the great victory at York. 46 Meanwhile the governor, supposing Mr. Millington to be, as he professed himself, highly his friend and his protector, complained to him of the mutinous carriage of the horse, and his disturbance and discouragement in the public service thereby, and desired him to get a resolution in the thing, whereby his power and their duty might be defined, that he might know wherein he was to command them in his garrison, and they to obey him. Mr. Millington advised him to write a letter to him concerning this, setting down his own apprehensions, what he was to exact from them, and they to render him; which accordingly the governor did, and left it with Millington, and returned to his garrison. Mr. Millington told him, that he had showed the letter to the committee of both kingdoms, who had given their opinion of it, that he required no more of them than he ought to have. Soon after the governor, Mr. Millington came down to Nottingham, with instructions from the committee of both kingdoms, to hear and if he could, compose the differences at Nottingham; if not, to report them to the committee of both kingdoms. Mr. Millington, coming down with these, brought Plumptre as far as Leicester with him, and begged of the governor to permit him to return to his house, engaging himself that he should not meddle with anything belonging to the garrison, nor come near the castle nor any of the forts: which engagement the governor received, and suffered the man to come home; and Millington, lest the governor should suspect his great concern in Dr. Plumptre, made strong professions to him, that he desired re-admission into the town for nothing but to be a snare to him: for he knew the turbulency and pride of his spirit such, that he would never be quiet; but if, after this indulgence, he should, as he believed he would, return to his former courses, he would be inexcusable in the eyes of all men. Then Mr. Millington desired the governor to draw up some heads, wherein he conceived his power to consist, which he did, reducing almost all the words of his commission into eight propositions; which, when he showed first to Mr. Millington, before the committee saw them, Mr. Millington seemed very well to approve of them, and protested again to the governor, the faithfulness of his heart to him, excusing his intimacy with his enemies, upon a zeal he had to do him service, by discovering their designs against him, and called himself therein, Sir Politic Wouldbe: 47 but the governor disliking this double dealing, though it had been with his enemies, desired him rather to declare himself ingenuously as his conscience led him, though it should be against him, and told him freely he liked not this fair carriage to both. When the governor put in his propositions to the committee they desired each of them might have a copy of them, and all a week’s time to consider them; at the end of which, when the governor pressed their answer, whether they assented to them, or could object any thing against them; they, with false flattering apologies to the governor, that if such command were due to any man, they should rather the governor should employ it than any person whatsoever, by reason of his unquestioned merits; but they conceived that such a power given to a governor, would not consist with that which belonged to a committee, whereupon they produced a tedious impertinent paper, in answer to the governor’s propositions, which, when the governor read over, he flung by, saying it was a ridiculous senseless piece of stuff. Some of them taking exceptions that he should so contemn the committee’s paper; he replied he knew not yet whose it was, not being signed by any one; if any of them would own it, he desired them to subscribe it, and then he should know what to say. Thereupon, the next day, it was again brought out, signed by Mr. Millington, Chadwick, Salusbury, White, and the mayor of the town. The sum of the paper not containing any exceptions against the governor himself, but against his power, and wholly denying that my Lord Fairfax had power to make a governor, or confer any such power on him, as his commission imported, the governor told them, it no further concerned him, but only to acquaint my Lord Fairfax, with whom he should leave it to justify his own commission, and his authority to give one. But forasmuch as my lord was concerned in it, the gentlemen who had more respect for him disowned it, and these were the governor, the lieutenant-colonel, Mr. Pigott, Colonel Thornhagh, Major Ireton, Major Widmerpoole, 48 Captain Lomax, and Alderman James. Then the governor told them how he had been informed that this paper was of Chadwick’s contrivance, and that when Mr. Millington saw it, he hugged Chadwick in his arms, with such congratulations, as is not to be imagined they could give to a fellow of whom they had justly entertained so vile an opinion; and then before his face he declared all their thoughts of indignation and contempt, which they had formerly expressed of Colonel Chadwick, whom he asked, with what face he could question my lord’s authority to make him governor, when he had formerly used such surreptitious cheats to obtain it for himself, by the same authority? And he asked the committee, how it came to pass, they now believed my Lord Fairfax had not authority to make him governor, when they themselves at first writ to him for the commission? And to Mr. Millington he said that he had dealt very unfaithfully to those that entrusted him to compose differences, which he had rather made than found; and very treacherously with him, making himself a party and the chief of his adversaries, when he pretended only to be a reconciler. Having at full laid them open one to another, and declared all their treachery, malice, pride, and knavery, to their faces, he went away, smiling at the confusion he had left them in, who had not virtue enough in their shame to bring them back to repentance, but having begun to persecute him, with their spite and malice, were resolved to carry on with their wicked design; wherein they had now a double encouragement to animate them, Mr. Millington’s sheltering them in the parliament house, and obstructing all redress the governor should there seek for, and the hopes of profit and advantage they might upon the change of things expect by the garrison, if they could wrest it out of the governor’s hands, either by wearying him with unjust vexations, or by watching some advantage against him, to procure the discharge of his office by the parliament; for they, knowing him to be impatient of affronts, and of a high spirit, thought to provoke him to passion, wherein something might fall out to give them advantages; but he, perceiving their drift, showed them that he governed his anger, and suffered it not to master him, and that he could make use of it to curb their insolency, and yet avoid all excursions that might prejudice himself. When the governor undertook this employment, the parliament’s interest in those parts was so low, and the hazard so desperate, that these pitiful wretches, as well as the other faithful-hearted to the public cause, courted him to accept and keep the place; and though their foul spirits hated the daylight of his more virtuous conversation, yet were they willing enough to let him bear the brunt of all the hazard and toil of their defence, willinger to be secured by his indefatigable industry and courage, than to render him the just acknowledgment of his good deserts. This ingratitude did not at all abate his zeal for the public service, for as he sought not praise, so he was well enough satisfied in doing well; yet through their envious eyes, they took in a general good esteem of him, and sinned against their own consciences in persecuting him, whereof he had after acknowledgments and testimonies from many of them. All the while of this contest, he was borne up by a good and honourable party of the committee, and greater in number and value than the wicked ones, whom Mr. Mlllington’s power in the house only countenanced and animated to pursue their mischiefs. What it was that drew Mr. Millington into their confederacy was afterwards apparent; they hired him with a subscription of losses, for which they gave him public credit double to what he really had lost; 49 and they offered him a share of the governor’s spoils, if he would help them to make him a prey, which would have been good booty to his mean family: for although the governor had hitherto got nothing but desperate hazard and vast expense, yet now this garrison began to be in a more hopeful condition, by the late success in the north. After York was taken, the Earl of Manchester marched into our parts, upon whose coming Bolsover and Tickhill castles were delivered up to him, and Welbeck, the Earl of Newcastle’s house, which was given into Colonel Thornhagh’s command, and much of the enemy’s wealth, by that means, brought into Nottingham: Wingfield Manor, a strong garrison in Derbyshire, was taken upon composition, and by this means a rich and large side of the country was laid open to help to maintain the garrison at Nottingham, 50 and more hoped for by these gentlemen, who were now as greedy to catch at the rewards of another’s labours, as unable to merit anything themselves. But when the hopes of the harvest of the whole country had tempted them to begin their wicked plots, God, seeming angry at their ill use of mercy caused the Earl of Manchester to have been called back into the south, when he was going to have besieged Newark, and so that town, with the petty garrisons at Wiverton, Shelford, and Belvoir, were still left for further exercise to Nottingham. Yet the hopes these would in time be gained, made these gentlemen prosecute their design against the governor, whose party they endeavoured with all subtleties to weaken: and first attempted Colonel Thornhagh, who having by his signalized valour arrived to a great reputation, they thought if they could gain him, he would be their best lever to heave out the governor, and that prop once removed they despaired not to make him contribute to his own ruin; for they had discovered in him a facility of nature, apt to be deluded by fair pretences and more prone to suspect the kind plain dealing of his friends than the flattery of his enemies: but the governor, after they had displayed themselves, by his vigilancy prevented many of their malicious designs, and among the rest those they had upon this gentleman. During his sickness the governor took care of his regiment, and employed the troops that quartered in the garrison: but through the wicked instigations of Captain White, being very refractory, and the regiment often called out on field-service, the governor sent for a commission, and raised a troop of horse, which the lieutenant-colonel commanded, and a troop of dragoons for the peculiar service of the garrison. These cunning sowers of sedition wrought, upon this occasion, Colonel Thornhagh into a jealous belief, that Colonel Hutchinson was taking the advantage of his sickness to work himself into his command. Colonel Thornhagh was grieved at it, but said nothing; but the governor discovering the thing, notwithstanding his silence, when the lieutenant-colonel went to London, procured a commission for Colonel Thornhagh to be, next under Sir Thomas Fairfax, commander-in-chief of all the parliament’s horse in Nottinghamshire, at all times; which being brought to Colonel Thornhagh, when he knew nothing of it, cleared him of that suspicion. And now, although they were more inclined to delude than openly to oppose Colonel Thornhagh, yet they, having no exceptions against the governor in his own person, but only against his authority, were forced to deny Colonel Thornhagh’s command as well as the governor’s, they being both derived from the same power. The horse-captains, who were allured by fair colours of preferment, and indulged in their plunder, which they hoped to do with more freedom if Captain White prevailed, were more obedient to Captain White and their own ambition than to their colonel or the laws and customs of war. The committee hoped, by thus disputing the colonels’ powers under a face of parliament authority, to wear them out, and make them cast up their commissions, when they had, by Mr. Millington, blocked up the way of their complaint, so that they feared not being turned out of the committee for the abuse of that trust: and perhaps they had succeeded but that the governor scorned to give up a good cause, either particular or public, for want of courage to defend it amidst many difficulties; and then, although he had many enemies, he had more friends, whom if he should desert, would be left to be crushed by these malicious persons; and more than all this, the country would be abandoned into the hands of persons who would only make a prey of it, and not endeavour its protection, liberty, or real advantage, which had been his chief aim in all his undertakings. 51  112
  The conspirators, as I may more justly term them, than the committee, had sent Captain White to York, to my Lord Fairfax, to get the governor’s power defined; which the governor understanding, the next day went thither himself, and Mr. Pigott, who from the beginning to the ending showed himself a real and generous friend to the governor, and as cordial to his country and the great cause, went along with him, arriving a day after Captain White. When my lord gave them a hearing together, he asked whether the governor had done anything of consequence without consulting the committee, which White could not say he had; then he asked White if he had any other misgovernment to accuse him of, which then White could not allege against him, the governor before his face told my lord all the business, whereupon White was dismissed with reproof and laughter, and letters were written to the committee, to justify the governor’s power, and to entreat them to forbear disturbing him in his command, 52 and to Mr. Millington, to desire him to come over to York to my lord, both which the governor delivered, but Mr. Millington would not go over, but, on the contrary, continued to foment and raise up the factions in the town against the governor, and by his countenance the committee every day meditated and practised new provocations, to stir up the governor to rage, or at least to weary him in his employment. The horse, without his knowledge, they frequently sent abroad; protections, tickets, and passes, they gave out; and, encroaching upon his office in all things whatsoever, wrought such a confusion in the garrison, that while all men were distracted and amazed, in doubt whose orders to obey, and who were their commanders, they obeyed none, but every man did what he listed; and by that means the public service was in all things obstructed and prejudiced. The governor, while the injury was only to himself, bore it, but when it extended almost to the destruction of the garrison, he was forced to endeavour a remedy. For about this time it happened that Salusbury, being treasurer, had given base terms and wilful delays to the soldiers who were assigned their pay, when the money was ready for them in the treasury; and when this base carriage of his had provoked them to a mutiny, the governor was sent for to appease it, which he did; but coming to the committee, told them he would no longer endure this usage of theirs, to have all things of power, honour, and command, wrested out of his hands, and all things of difficulty and danger put upon him; while they purposely stirred up occasions of rigour and punishment and then expected he should be the executioner of it, by which he perceived they did these things only with design to render him contemptible and odious to all persons. Not long after a command came for all the horse that could be spared in the garrison to go to Sir John Meldrum, to the relief of Montgomery Castle. 53 The governor went to the committee to consult what troops should march, and they voted none. The governor told them, he conceived when a command was given, they were to obey without dispute, and that he came to advise with them what troops should be sent forth, not whether any or no; therefore although they voted disobedience of the command that would not discharge him, especially the service being of great consequence, and the troops lying here without employment: wherefore at night he summoned a council of war, and there almost all the captains, having no mind to march so far from home, declared they conceived themselves to be under the command of the committee, and would only obey their orders. Upon this the governor went to the committee and desired them that, in regard unanswerable things were done, the public service neglected, and all the transactions of the garrison confused, they would unite with him in a petition to the parliament to define their several powers; and in the meantime, either quietly to let him execute his duty, or else to take all upon them and discharge him. They presently made a motion that he would call a muster, and put it to all the soldiers, whether they would be governed by the committee or the governor. The governor told them his command was not elective, but of right belonged to him, and this way was only the next occasion to cause a mutiny, which he could not consent to. But they persisting in their course, he came again to them and desired they would at length surcease these affronts in his command, and their underminings, whereby they endeavoured to alienate men’s hearts from him, and to raise a faction against him by close unworthy practices. So after much debate it was on all hands agreed, that they should not at all intermeddle with anything belonging to the soldiery, nor interrupt the governor in his command, till the house of parliament should decide it, and that the governor and Captain White should both go to London, to procure a speedy determination of the powers in a fair and open way. This they all faithfully promised the governor, and made many hypocritical professions to him, some of them with tears; whereupon he, who was of the most reconcilable nature in the world, accepted their fair pretences, and went to drink friendly with them in token of kindness. Yet was all this but hypocrisy and falsehood, for even at that very time they wearied many of the governor’s officers out of the garrison, by the continued malice wherewith they persecuted all that had any respect for him. Among these was Mr. Hooper the engineer, a man very faithful to the cause, and very honest, but withal rough, who having to do with hateful businesses, was made odious to the common people, the priests too having a particular spite at him, as one they esteemed a leader of the separatists; yet he was very ingenious and industrious in his office, and most faithful as well to the governor himself as to the public service. The committee, to insinuate themselves with the common people, regarded him with an evil eye, and so discouraged him, that being offered much better preferment, and invited by Colonel Cromwell into other parts, he acquainted the governor with it, offering withal that, if he might yet be protected from affronts in his employment, he would stay and serve the governor for half the salary offered elsewhere. But the governor, although he was very sorry to part with him, and the service would much miss him, yet being so much injured himself, could not undertake the protection of any of his officers, and therefore would not hinder his preferment, but suffered him to go to Cromwell. Such was the envy of the committee to him, that, just as he was going, that very day, they not willing to let him depart in peace, although they knew he had justly expended all the money he had received of them yet they called for an account, from the beginning of his employment, which they had often seen in parcels; but believing he could not so readily give it them altogether, they then demanded it. He immediately brought it forth, and got by it twelve shillings due to him upon the foot thereof, which he intended not to have asked them, but receiving it upon the exhibition of his account, went away smiling at their malice; which yet would not let him go so, for then Henry Wandall came with a petition to the governor, that he would vindicate the honour of the Earl of Essex against Mr. Hooper, whom he accused of having spoken words against him, and done action to his dishonour. The governor knowing this was but malice accepted security for him, which was offered by Mr. Pigott and Major Watson, that he should answer what could be objected against him at any council of war he should be called to. 54  113
  Wednesday, September the 25th, 1644, Captain White went to London, to solicit the committee’s business against the governor, for they were intended to put it upon a fair debate, as was promised. The next day the governor commanded Captain Barrett’s troop to convoy him towards London; but just as he was going to horse, the committee, contrary to their engagements not to meddle with any military affairs, commanded them another way, and so he was forced to go without a convoy, although the captain was afforded a whole troop to wait on him.  114
  Two or three days before the governor went, Chadwick came privately to the governor’s brother, and told him that his conscience would not suffer him to conceal the malicious designs, and that treachery, which he now discovered to be in these men’s oppositions of the governor; and with many insinuations, told him they were framing articles against the governor, whereof he gave him a copy, which the governor carried to London with him, and showed the lieutenant-colonel the originals in Mason’s and Plumptre’s own handwritings. Three days after the governor, Colonel Thornhagh went to London. That day the governor went, one of the presbyterian ministers, whose name was Goodall, preached the lecture at the great church, 55 with many invectives against governors and arbitrary power, so plainly hinting at the governor, that all the church well understood it; but for the committee, he glozed with them, and told them he had nothing to say to them, but to go on in the good way they went. Some months after, this poor man, preaching at a living the committee had put him into, was taken by the enemy, and much dejected at it, because he could not hope the governor would exchange him, after his unworthy pulpit railings at him; but the governor, who hated poor revenges, when his enemy and one of his friends were both in the same prison, and he had but one exchange ready, first procured the minister’s release, and let his own officer stay for the next exchange. Whereupon the man coming home, was struck with remorse, and begged the governor’s pardon, with real acknowledgments both to himself and others of his sin, in supporting faction against the governor; who was told that on his death-bed, for he died before the garrison was dissolved, he expressed to some of the governor’s friends his trouble for having been his enemy. But not only to him, but to many other of his enemies, the governor upon sundry occasions, when they fell into his power to have requited their mischiefs, instead of vengeance rendered them benefits; so that at last his own friends would tell him, if they could in justice and conscience forsake him, they would become his adversaries, for that was the next way to engage him to obligations. But although his friends, who had greater animosities against his unjust persecutors than he himself, would say these things in anger at his clemency, his nature was as full of kind gratitude to his friends as free from base revenges upon enemies, who either fell down to him by their own just remorse, or were cast under his power by God’s just providence.  115
  As soon as the governor was gone, the committee took all power upon them, and had the impudence to command the lieutenant-colonel, who was deputy-governor, and absolute in his brother’s absence, to draw out his troop: he went to them and told them he was sorry they broke their agreement, but he could not break his trust of his brother’s authority to obey them. Then they feigned a pretence and turned out the governor’s quarter-master, 56 who by the governor’s appointment had quartered soldiers at an ale-house Mr. Millington had given a protection to, that they should quarter none, upon the account of some relation they had to him, who married one of the daughters of the place. This occasioning some dispute, Cooke the quarter-master had uttered some words, for which they sent for him and cast out great threats, how they would punish him; which frighted his wife, big with child, in that manner, that her child died within her, and her own life was in great hazard. The committee then called a hall, and caused the townsmen to bring in horses for dragoons, whereof they voted a regiment to be raised, Chadwick to be the colonel, and Hall and Selby to be captains under him. They took upon them to command the soldiers, and made horrible confusion, by which they often put the garrison in great danger, if the enemy had known their advantage. 57 Among the rest, one night after the guards were set, the captain of the guard, missing the deputy-governor to receive the word from him, gave them the same word they had before, till he found out the governor to receive a new one. Mr. Millington coming by, half flustered, would have had the captain take a word from him, which the captain refused, he being angry, commanded Captain Mason’s drums to beat, and set a double guard. The lieutenant-colonel hearing the drums, and having no notice of this command, sent to Mason to command him to forbear drawing any men to the guard, but Mason would not obey him. Besides this, they did a thousand such like things, to provoke him to give them some colour of complaint, or some advantage against him and his brother, for the carrying on a wicked design, which they were secretly managing to destroy them; but God, by a wonderful providence, brought it to light.  116
  Their conspiracy was to accuse the colonel and his brother, as persons that had betrayed the town and castle, and were ready to surrender them to the enemy, which they would pretend to have discovered, and to have prevented their treachery by a surprise of the lieutenant-colonel, the castle and the bridges, and all the officers that were faithful to the governor and his friends. Because they had not force in town who would act this villany, they sent to Sir John Gell, in whom they had a great interest, and a man likely enough to promote their wickedness, had they even acquainted him with it, as black as it was in the cursed forge of their own hearts: but to carry their business closely, they sent to tell him they had cause of suspicion that the lieutenant-colonel was false to his trust, and would deliver the castle to the enemy, to prevent which they desired him to assist them with some men and ammunition; which ammunition was very secretly conveyed into the town, and the men were ready to march, and quarters taken up for them in Nottingham. The lieutenant-colonel dreamed nothing of the mischief that was hatching against him, when, just at the very time of the execution, there came into Nottingham two gentlemen, whom the parliament employed to carry intelligence between the north and the south, and who used to meet at this town. 58  117
  Mr. Fleetwood, who came from the south, came immediately up to the castle, and there was familiarly and kindly treated, as he used to be, by the lieutenant-colonel. This was upon a Saturday night, in the month of October. Mr. Marsh, his correspondent, that came from the north, passing through Derby, was cautioned so by Sir John Gell, that he durst not come up to the castle, but on the Lord’s day sent for Mr. Fleetwood to meet him in the town; who coming to him he told him what information he had received from Sir John Gell, and for that reason durst not trust himself in the castle. Mr. Fleetwood undertaking for his safety, brought him up to the lieutenant-colonel, and finding the untruth of their forgeries, told the lieutenant-colonel all the machinations against him; whereupon, on the Monday morning, he went away to London, and sent Mr. Millington word, that having understood the suspicion they had of him, he was gone to London, where, if they had anything to accuse him of, they might send after him, and he should be ready to answer it, and in his absence had left Captain Lomax governor of the garrison. The committee, very much confounded that their wickedness was come to light, resolved to outface the thing, and denied that they had sent to Derby for any men. They said indeed it was true, that having formerly lent Sir John Gell some powder, they had sent for that back; but this was not all, for they had also persuaded the master of the magazine that was in the castle to convey, unknown to the lieutenant-colonel, two barrels of powder, with match and bullet suitable, to such place as Chadwick should direct. This he, not dreaming of their evil intention, had condescended to do, and sent them to Salusbury’s house; but as soon as the lieutenant-colonel was gone, they took what care they could to shuffle up this business, and presently despatched Captain Palmer to London and Lieutenant Chadwick to Derby, where he so wrought with Sir John Gell, that he brought back a counterfeit letter, pretended to have been all that was sent from the committee of Nottingham to him, and another of Sir John Gell’s writing, wherein he disowned all that Mr. Marsh had related of his information. But God, who would not let them be hid, had so ordered that while matters were thus huddling up at Derby, Sir John Gell’s brother came by chance to Nottingham, and affirmed that the committee of Nottingham had sent to his brother for three hundred men, to surprise Nottingham Castle; which, when the committee heard, they sent Captain Pendock after him the next day to charm him, that he might no more discover the truth in that particular. Also that very day that these intentions of theirs were thus providentially brought to light, one of Sir John Gell’s captains was known to be in town, whom Sir John had sent to discover the state of things, and the new quartermaster had been all that day taking billet for soldiers in several houses in the town. 59  118
  When the governor came to London, the committee of both kingdoms had appointed a sub-committee to hear his business, whereof young Sir Henry Vane had the chair, Mr. William Pierrepont, Mr. Solicitor St. John, Mr. Recorder, and two of the Scotch commissioners, were nominated for the committee; before whom the governor’s propositions and the committee’s answers had been read, and when their solicitor, Captain White, saw they were likely to be cast out as frivolous, he produced some articles, which they had formed against the governor, lieutenant-colonel, and Mr. Pigott; but they proved as frivolous as the other, and the gentlemen answered them so clearly that they appeared to be forged out of malice and envy, only to cause delays, there being scarcely anything of moment in them if they had been true, whereas they were all false. And now after they had trod down the fence of shame, and imprudently began with articles, there was not the least ridiculous impertinency that passed at Nottingham, but they put it into a scrip of paper and presented it as an additional article to the committee; to each of whom particularly Mr. Millington had written letters, and given them such false impressions of the governor, and so prepossessed them against him, that was a stranger to them all, that they looked upon him very coldly and slightly, when he made particular addresses to them. But he that scorned to be discouraged with any man’s disregard, from whom he had more reason to have expected all caresses and thankful acknowledgments of his unwearied fidelity and good services, resolved to pursue his own vindication through all their frowns and cold repulses: these he met with more from Mr. William Pierrepont than from any of the rest, till Mr. Pierrepont perceived the injustice of their prosecution, and then there was no person in the world that could demean himself with more justice, honour, and kindness than he did to the governor, whose injuries became first apparent to him, when the lieutenant-colonel came and told his brother what combinations had been discovered against him at Nottingham, which the governor resenting with great indignation, complained of it to the committee. The Solicitor White impudently denied the whole matter, or that ever the committee at Nottingham had had the least suspicion of the governor or his brother, or the least ground of any. When this had been with stiffness and imprudence enough outfaced before the committee, Mr. Pierrepont, then fully convinced of their devilish malice, pulled a letter out of his pocket, wherein Mr. Millington made this suggestion to him against the governor and his brother, and desired that he might be armed with power to prevent and suppress them. This would have made others ashamed, but their solicitor was notwithstanding impudent and rudely pressing upon the committee, who though they were persons of honour, and after they discovered the governor’s innocence, not forward to oppress him, yet as they were statesmen, so they were not so ready to relieve him as they ought to have been, because they could not do it without a high reflection upon one of their own members, who encouraged all those little men in their wicked persecution of him. They were such exquisite rogues, that all the while some of them betrayed one another to the governor, and told him, under pretence of honesty, and conscience, the bottom of their whole designs, showed the foul original drafts of their articles, in the men’s own hands that contrived them; and told him how, not so much dislike of him, as covetousness and ambition to advance themselves upon his ruins, engaged them thus against him, and made them contrive that villainy to accuse him and his brother of treachery, and to have seized their garrisons, under that pretence, and gotten them to be made prisoners; and then Mr. Millington undertook to have lodged their petitions so in the parliament that they should never have been heard and relieved. 60 Colonel Thornhagh too was to have been wrought out of his command, and they had divided the spoil before they caught the lions. Millington’s son was designed to be governor of the castle; the ten pounds a week allowed for the governor’s table, so many of the committee-men were to share by forty shillings a man; Chadwick was to be colonel of the town regiment, and Mason major; White colonel of the horse regiment, and Palmer, the priest, his major; and all the governor’s friends to be turned out, and their places disposed to creatures of their own, who drawn on with these hopes, were very active to work the governor and his party out of the opinion of all men. They forgot the public interest in this private quarrel, taking in all the malignant and debauched people that would join with them, to destroy the governor, whom they hated for his unmoved fidelity to his trust, and his severe restriction of lewdness and vice. But because he protected and favoured godly men that were sober, although they separated from the public assemblies, this opened wide the mouths of all the priests and all their idolaters, and they were willing enough to let the children of hell cry out with them to make the louder noise: and as we have seen since the whole cause and party ruined by the same practice, so at that time the zealots for God and the parliament turned all the hate they had to the enemies of both, and called on them to assist in executing their malice upon the faithful servant and generous champion of the Lord’s and his country’s just cause. And now the name of cavalier was no more remembered, Castilian 61 being the term of reproach with which they branded all the governor’s friends; and lamentable it was to behold how those wretched men fell away under this temptation, not only from public spiritedness, but from sobriety and honest, moral conversation; not only conniving at and permitting the wickedness of others, but themselves conversing in taverns and brothels, till at last Millington and White were so ensnared that they married a couple of alehouse wenches, to their open shame and the conviction of the whole country of the vain lives they led, and some reflection on the parliament itself, as much as the miscarriage of a member could cast on it, when Millington, a man of sixty, professing religion, and having but lately buried a religious matronly gentlewoman, should go to an alehouse to take a flirtish girl of sixteen; yet by these noble alliances, they much strengthened their faction with all the vain, drunken rogues in the town against the governor. Now their first plot had, by God’s providence, been detected, they fell upon others, and set on instruments every where, to insinuate all the lies they could, that might render the governor odious to the town and to the horse of the garrison, whom they desired to stir up to petition against him, but could not find any considerable number that could freely do it; therefore they used all the strong motives they could, and told them that the governor sought to exercise an arbitrary power over them, and to have all their booties at his own dispose, and other such like things, by which at length they prevailed with many of Col. Thornhagh’s regiment to subscribe a petition that they might be under the command of the committee and not of any other person in the garrison. This petition was sent up by Captain Palmer, and he meeting Mr. Pigott at Westminster Hall, Mr. Pigott, in private discourse with him, began to bewail the scandalous conversation of certain persons of the committee, hoping that he, being familiar with them, might be a means to persuade them to reformation.  119
  After this the governor, Colonel Thornhagh, Mr. Pigott, and some other, being in a tavern at Westminster, where they dined, Captain Palmer came to the door, and they bade him come in. Upon discourse, the governor pulled out of his pocket the articles which the committee had put in against him, showed them to Captain Palmer, and asked him whether he thought it possible that he should after all his toils and services, have been articled against for such things. Palmer, who had been from the beginning with the governor, and knew the falsehood of these accusations, professed he was amazed at them, and that he had not till then heard anything of them. Continuing in further discourse, the governor mentioned an unchristianlike sermon, which Mr. Goodall had preached with invectives against him, in his absence. Palmer undertook the justification of it with such saucy provocations that the governor told him if it had not been more in respect to his black coat than his grey, he would have beaten him out of the room, which for his own safety he advised him to leave; so he went out very angry, and going to Captain White, told him how Mr. Pigott called him a whoremaster, Mr. Millington a drunkard, and Chadwick a knave. White, meeting Mr. Pigott in the hall, challenged him of these scandals. Mr. Pigott, seeing Palmer not far off, led White to him, and told him he knew that person had been his informer, repeating all he had said to him, and added, that it was in a desire for their reformation, but he would maintain that all the things he spoke were true. Palmer further, in his rage, puts into the committee a paper of reasons why he desired to be exempted from being under the governor; whereof one was, that he had cowardly and unhandsomely behaved himself on an occasion when Palmer’s troop marched out with him to Elston. The governor sent a copy of this paper down to Palmer’s own troop, and the lieutenant, cornet, and all the troopers sent up a certificate, under their hands, of the falsehood of their captain’s accusation. After this, Palmer came into the garrison, and made a grievous exclamation all over the town against the governor and Mr. Pigott for traducing the ministers, Mr. Millington, and the committee; adding a false report, that the governor had thrown a trencher at his head; and abusing the pulpit to persuade the people to vindicate them. 62 Among other things he misapplied a place in Nehemiah where Nehemiah says, ‘I ate not the governor’s bread, because the fear of the Lord was upon me’, to the governor; that his accepting a public table, was a mark of the want of the fear of God; and many other such malicious wrestings of scripture did he and his fellow priests at that time practise. The committee of Nottingham, on their side, taking this occasion, called a public hall in the town, where two orations were made by Mr. Millington and Colonel Chadwick. Millington began with a large enumeration of Chadwick’s worthy actions (known to no man), whereby he merited honour of all men, especially of this town; and then mentioning his own good services for the town, told them how ungratefully they were repaid by Mr. Pigott, with the scandalous aspersion of being drunkards and knaves; and that their singular affections and endeavours for the good of the town had exposed them to this calumny, wherefore they desired the town to join in their justification. Chadwick made just such another speech, and both of them seemed to pass by their own particular, and only to desire the other’s justification; Chadwick, in his speech, saying that Mr. Pigott’s abuse of Mr. Millington did not only asperse the committee, but even the parliament itself. Captain Lomax, then deputy-governor of the garrison, after they had spoken, stood up, and advised the townsmen that they should forbear to entangle themselves in things they understood not, adding that Mr. Pigott, and the gentlemen at London, were persons of such honour and prudence, that they would maintain whatever they had spoken of any man. Hereupon Captain Mason, and two malignant townsmen his soldiers, began to mutiny with high insolence, and to lay violent hands on him to thrust him out of the hall, giving him most reproachful terms; but the man, being very stout, quieted them, and would not depart till the hall broke up. After this, without acquainting the deputy-governor, they summoned another hall; but Lomax, seeing their inclination to mutiny, forbade it. Then, at ten o’clock at night, they got a common council together, at Mr. Salusbury his house, and there Mr. Millington again desired they would join in the vindication 63 of himself, the ministers, and the committee, and got about eight of them to subscribe a blank paper. Then the committee, with certain instruments of theirs, appointed rounds to walk the town, persuading some, and threatening others, to set their hands to a petition which none of them that subscribed knew what it was, but they told them it was for the good of the town.  120
  All this while these petty committee fellows had carried themselves as absolute governors, and Plumptre was now their intimate favourite, and began to vapour that he would have the castle pulled down to re-erect the church, and the fort at the bridges thrown down, and all the arms and soldiers brought into the town.  121
  But at London, the governor being grown into acquaintance with the gentlemen of the sub-committee that were to hear his business; and they perceiving with how much wicked malice he was prosecuted, Sir Henry Vane was so honourable as to give him advice to put his business in such a way, as might take away all colour from his enemies. Whereupon he put in some propositions to the committee of both kingdoms, for the composure of these differences, wherein he was willing to decline all things of his own right, which might be done without prejudice to the public service, and to pass by all the injuries that had been done him; which condescension gave such satisfaction, that forthwith the whole business was determined at the committee of both kingdoms, and the governor sent back to his charge, with instructions drawn up for all parties, and letters written to the officers and soldiers, both of horse and foot, to be obedient; and likewise letters to the mayor of the town and the committee. The governor returning, word was brought to Nottingham, that on Friday night he lay at Leicester, whereupon the committee, who had heard the determination of things above, got them ready to be gone, but the soldiers having notice thereof, went to the deputy-governor and entreated him to stop the treasurer; whereupon he and the major of the regiment went to them, and entreated them to stay till the governor came, but to see what instructions he brought with him from the powers above; but when they would not be persuaded fairly, then the deputy peremptorily forbade the treasurer, as he would answer it, not to go. But he refusing to obey, the deputy told him he should pass on his sword’s point if he went, and accordingly went down to set guards at the Trent bridges; which being told them, they made haste and fled out at the other end of the town. Millington, Chadwick, Ayscough, Salusbury, and Mason (whom they had gotten added to the committee to increase their faction), were the committee-men, who took with them their new marshal and another of their created officers, Palmer, two more priests, and a town captain. 64 The governor was met on his way homewards by some of his officers, and told with what joy his garrison and regiment were preparing to entertain him, in all expressions they could possibly make, by volleys of cannon and muskets, and ringing of bells, and all such declarations as used to be made in a public and universal rejoicing; but the governor, fearing his enemies might not bear such testimonies of love to him without grief, sent into the town to desire them to forbear their kind intentions of giving him so loud a welcome. When he was now near the town, another messenger came to acquaint him, that all those who would have been grieved at his joyful entertainment were fled and that those who remained would be much grieved if he should not be pleased to give them leave to receive him with such demonstrations of their joy as they could make. He now permitted them to do what they pleased; which leave being obtained, every one strove to declare his gladness with all imaginable expressions of love and honour, and with all the solemnities the time and place would afford. The governor on his side received them with a cheerful obliging courtesy to all, and a large bounty to his loving soldiers, who made that day as great a festival as if themselves and their families had been redeemed from captivity. The mayor of the town, with his brethren in their scarlets, met him, and told him if he had been guilty of anything prejudicial to him, he was exceedingly sorry for it, for he infinitely honoured him, and all his errors had been through ignorance or misinformation, which he should be most ready to repair. That evening White came home pining with spite and envy at the governor and the gentlemen that joined with him, viz. Colonel Thornhagh, Mr. Pigott, Lieutenant-colonel Hutchinson, Major Widmerpoole, Captain Lomax, and Alderman James; for as to the mayor of the town, notwithstanding his fair professions publicly to the governor, White had the same night again turned about that weathercock.  122
  The next day the governor and the committee with him sent a command to all the horse in town to march to the assistance of Derby and Leicester, to fortify a house called Coleorton; 65 which not being taken notice of, the governor and Colonel Thornhagh summoned all the horse officers, and declared to them the orders of the committee of both kingdoms, to which they cheerfully promised obedience; but White being sent for among them, insolently refused to come up to the castle, and bade the governor come down to him to the committee’s chamber; yet upon second thoughts he came up, and the governor took no notice for that time. Monday the governor sent to the mayor to call a hall, but the mayor intreated him to forbear till they saw whether the committee-men that ran away would come back, and that he might go with Captain White to persuade them; both which the governor assented to; but the men would not return, but went from Derby to London. Then the governor called a general muster, and read to them the instructions he had brought from the committee of both kingdoms, with which all men were exceeding well pleased. But Captain White all this while would not deliver the letters he had for the committee and the mayor of Nottingham.  123
  Some few days after word was brought the governor that the new dragoons were come for ammunition, to march out upon some design he was not acquainted with, whereupon he sent to the guards at the bridges not to suffer them to pass without his ticket. Immediately afterwards, White came along with them, and being denied to pass, gave the guards such provocative language that they were forced to send for the governor. He came down and found White in high rage, who gave him all the vile terms and opprobrious language he could invent, to provoke him to some anger upon which he might have taken his advantage; but the governor only laughed at his fogue, 66 and would not let him go till he showed a warrant from the council of war at London, and then he permitted him, after White had told him that he would not be commanded by him, and a thousand such mutinous speeches. As he went towards London he met the horse coming home from Coleorton, to whom he told such lies of the governor’s usage of him, that they were frighted from coming into the garrison, but that Colonel Thornhagh prevailed with them to take his engagement, that the governor should give them no ill usage. So they came back, and that week their colonel charged the enemy’s quarters with them and took eighty horse, two horse colours, a major and some other officers. 67 The bridge troop also met with Colonel Stanhope, governor of Shelford, who had two parties, each as many as they; his, where himself was, they routed, and he ran away, while the other party charged them in the rear, upon whom they turned, routed, and chased them out of the field, took Lieutenant-colonel Stanhope and his ensign, and many other prisoners, with many horse and arms. In the absence of the governor and his brother, the committee had done all they could to discourage and dissipate this troop, and would neither give them money nor provisions; yet, upon hopes of their captain’s return, they kept themselves together, and when the governor came home he recruited them. 68  124
  The committee of both kingdoms had sent down at this time an order for all the horse of Nottingham and Derbyshire to join with three regiments of Yorkshire, and quarter about Newark, 69 to straiten the enemy there; and accordingly they rendezvoused at Mansfield, and from thence marched to Thurgarton, where Sir Roger Cooper had fortified his house, and lined the hedges with musketeers, who, as the troops passed by, shot and killed one Captain Heywood. Hereupon Colonel Thornhagh sent to the governor, and desired to borrow some foot to take the house. The governor accordingly lent him three companies, who took the house, and Sir Roger Cooper and his brother, and forty men in it, who were sent prisoners to Nottingham; 70 where, although Sir Roger Cooper was in great dread of being put into the governor’s hands, whom he had provoked before upon a private occasion, yet he received such a civil treatment from him, that he seemed to be much moved and melted with it. The foot had done all the service, and run all the hazard, in taking the house, yet the booty was all given to the horse; this they had very just reason to resent, but notwithstanding, they marched along with them to Southwell, and there were most sadly neglected, and put upon keeping outguards for the horse, and had no provisions, so that the governor was forced to send them some out of his garrison, or else they had been left to horrible distress. Hereupon they sent to the governor to desire they might come home, but upon Colonel Thornhagh’s entreaty and engagement that they should be better used, the governor was content to let them stay a little longer, till more horse came up, which were sent for out of Yorkshire. In the meantime, those who were there already did nothing but harass the poor country; and the horse officers were so negligent of their own duty, and so remiss in the government of their soldiers, that the service was infinitely prejudiced, and the poor country miserably distressed. The Nottingham horse, being in their own country, and having their families in and about Nottingham, were more guilty of straggling than any of the rest; and Capt. White’s whole troop having presumed to be away one night when they should have been upon the guard, the Newarkers beat up our quarters, and took almost two whole troops of that regiment. 71 White’s lieutenant, without any leave from the colonel, thereupon posted up to London, and contrived a complaint against the governor, to make him appear guilty of this disorder; but soon after Newark gave them another alarum, and the parliament horse made so slender an appearance that the officers, thereupon consulting in a council of war, concluded that the design was not to be prosecuted without more force, and for the present broke up their quarters.  125
 
Note 1. Colonel Hutchinson’s letter of January 16–17, 1644, gives a full account of this attack. See Appendix XVIII. [back]
Note 2. ‘Upon Sunday morning, the 14th of January, Mr. Philip Laycock came to the governor, and showed him a letter that his brother, Lieutenant-colonel Cartwright, had written to him, wherein he entreated his brother to speak to the governor to grant him a protection to lay down his arms, and live quietly at home, and to send him word speedily whether he could have it or no, for he was resolved to give over, and if he had not this protection he would try another way. The governor took time to consider of it’.—Note-Book, 44 b. [back]
Note 3. The Note-Book mentions five persons, viz., Mr. Mayer, Mr. Coates, Alderman Drury, Mr. John Gregory, and Mr. Mason; ‘but of all these captains there was not one but Mr. Coates that would stand, which so discouraged the soldiers that they also returned home unlisted’. Mr. Mason seems to have been persuaded to accept a commission a few days later. [back]
Note 4. On September 3, 1605, Captain Mason was admitted and sworn a burgess of Nottingham, without any payment, for his services as captain, because he performed that place valiantly, with great pains and charge’.—Nottingham Records, v. 236. [back]
Note 5. About the same time the Earl of Clare sought to make his peace with the parliament. See the extract from the Note-Book in Appendix XIX. [back]
Note 6. The letter in question is the one already referred to. About this time occurs the capture of King’s Mills, which is described in the Note-Book. See extract in Appendix XX. [back]
Note 7. February 12 according to the Note-Book. [back]
Note 8. The other three signers of the warrant were Widmerpoole, Salusbury, and James.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 9. The 13th of February.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 10. ‘The design the governor was then prevented of was: the cavaliers had begun to fortify the minster and the bishop’s palace at Southwell; the town being much troubled at it, sent word that there were there but one hundred foot and one hundred horse, and if the force that Nottingham could send out would come and fall on them in their quarters, the town would rise with them’. The governor intended to review the horse on the 12th, and send them out on the 13th February.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 11. Hacker’s soldiers. [back]
Note 12. See the portion of Colonel Hutchinson’s letter given in Appendix XXI. [back]
Note 13. A kind of cap, so called. [back]
Note 14. ‘Six score of his own and the Major’s foot, and Captain White’s and Captain Palmer’s horse’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 15. ‘After some scolding’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 16. These Nottingham prisoners had been confined in Pontefract Castle.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 17. ‘On the fast day the national covenant was generally taken throughout the whole garrison: the women and those that were not soldiers took it at their parish churches. After the sermon, which in every church was made purposely for that occasion, all the soldiery, both horse and foot, were drawn forth into the field, and after the covenant being read and prayer made in three several places, the governor and every captain in the head of their companies, with all their soldiers, solemnly took the covenant, and to express their joy, there was a general shout throughout the whole field, and a psalm sung, after which they went all according to their several companies into the town and subscribed it’.—Note-Book, 55 a. [back]
Note 18. ‘They should have marched the next day, but Sir Edward Hartup had more mind to drink, and went not till Friday’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 19. ‘They all being drawn out and come as far as the Lings.’—Note-Book. [back]
Note 20. This account of the behaviour of Sir E. Hartup (or Hartopp) is confirmed, with additional details, in the pamphlet entitled, ‘A brief relation of the siege at Newark, as it was delivered to the Council of State at Derby House by Lieutenant-colonel Bury, whom the Earl of Manchester sent to report’. Hartup returned towards Newark on Tuesday night, and the battle took place on Thursday. [back]
Note 21. In Whitelocke’s Memoirs, p. 85, there is an account of this relief, or raising the siege of Newark, agreeing with Mrs. Hutchinson’s, except that it is not quite so particular, and omits the account of what befell Colonel Thornhagh. Whitelocke attributes to the misconduct of Sir E. Hartup and Colonel Bingley Prince Rupert’s coming with his forces entire to the place, and informs us that a court-martial was directed to decide upon their conduct, but does not state what their decision was.—J. H. [back]
Note 22. See the pamphlet entitled, ‘His Highness Prince Rupert’s Raising of the Siege at Newark, March 21, 1643. Written by an eye-witness to a person of honour’. [back]
Note 23. ‘The Spittle or Exeter House, a little more than musket-shot from the town’.—Prince Rupert’s Raising of the Siege, etc. In the account of the former siege, in February 1643, it is described as, ‘the Earl of Exeter’s House, which was an hospital heretofore dependent on the see of Lincoln, but now assured upon the family by an Act of Parliament made this session’. [back]
Note 24. Rapin gives a different account of this matter, but to those who know or observe the situation of the places, Mrs. Hutchinson’s will appear to be the true one. Besides Muscam Bridge there was a bridge of boats, which enabled the prince’s forces to surround the guard left at Muscam Bridge. This guard, instead of deserting, as Rapin says of it, was deserted and sacrificed for want of support; the road still lay open to Lincoln, but probably Prince Rupert was too strong and too active to let the besiegers escape any way, unless they had acted with better accord amongst themselves.—J. H. [back]
Note 25. The Note-Book speaks of ‘squibs that should go off like muskets’. In Colonel Bury’s narrative the conduct of this detachment in thus abandoning the bridge is severely censured. [back]
Note 26. In the royalist narrative it is stated that ‘for the horsemen’s carrying away their arms, and others their pikes, with more than was conditioned our unruly soldiers (especially those that had been so before used at Lincoln by the Parliamenteers), taking this occasion to quarrel with the rebels, took more from them than by the articles they should have done: but for this were divers of them slashed by the prince, and the rebels’ colours sent back unto them’.
  The arms taken were, according to the same authority, ‘between three and four thousand muskets, and a great quantity of pikes and pistols, also eleven fair brass pieces, two mortar pieces, and one basilisk of Hull’. [back]
Note 27. In the royalist narrative it is stated that ‘for the horsemen’s carrying away their arms, and others their pikes, with more than was conditioned our unruly soldiers (especially those that had been so before used at Lincoln by the Parliamenteers), taking this occasion to quarrel with the rebels, took more from them than by the articles they should have done: but for this were divers of them slashed by the prince, and the rebels’ colours sent back unto them’.
  The arms taken were, according to the same authority, ‘between three and four thousand muskets, and a great quantity of pikes and pistols, also eleven fair brass pieces, two mortar pieces, and one basilisk of Hull’. [back]
Note 28. This letter, together with a letter from the governor of Nottingham Castle, was read in the House of Commons on March 29th, and referred to the Committee of Both Kingdoms. It is printed in Appendix XXII. [back]
Note 29. The chief of these cannoniers was that Lawrence Collin mentioned in a former note. He continued at Nottingham after all the wars were over, but being persecuted on account of his religion, applied to Cromwell for protection, and was effectually screened by him from his persecutors; he lived to more than ninety years; his descendants rose to opulence, and one of them founded a very handsome hospital. This family united themselves to that of Langford, and both being molested on the score of nonconformity, were peculiarly protected by James the Second, and stood steadfastly by him at the revolution, at which time he got many sectaries to join the catholics, and make common cause against the church of England. By this turn of events and opinions, Langford Collin, Esq., before mentioned, came to be the head of the country, Jacobite, or anti-revolutionist party, while the Plumptres and Hutchinsons embraced the Hanover or Whig party, as mentioned in the note, p. 106, just spoken of.
  Since the publication of the first edition, there has appeared a very candid critique of this work in the Annual Review of 1806, containing the following remark: ‘It may be mentioned as an additional proof of Mr. Hutchinson’s rectitude, that when George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, was imprisoned at Nottingham, he protected him; thus proving that, unlike the greater number of those who were engaged in the same cause, he allowed that liberty of conscience to others which he claimed for himself’.
  The Editor thought it his duty, upon this suggestion, to make further inquiry, and has in pursuance of it been furnished by a respectable friend, Mr. Barker, surgeon, at Colchester, with the two following extracts, together with some others, which will appear in their proper places.—G. Fox’s Journal, fol. ed. p. 27. ‘I went to the Steeple House at Nottingham, during the time of divine worship, addressed the people, and was committed to prison. When the assizes came on, there was one moved to come and offer himself up for me, body for body, yea, life also; but when I should have been brought before the judge, the sheriff’s man being somewhat long in fetching me to the sessions-house, the judge was risen before I came, at which I understood he was somewhat offended. So I was returned to prison, and put into the common gaol; and the Lord’s power was great among friends, but the people began to be very rude, wherefore the governor of the castle sent down soldiers and dispersed them, and after that they were quiet’. Sewell’s Hist. of Quakers, fol. ed. p. 22. ‘Now, though the people began to be very rude, yet the governor of the castle was so very moderate, that he sent down soldiers to disperse them’.—J. H. [back]
Note 30. The first battle of Newbury took place on September 20, 1643; the defeat of the Irish army at Nantwich, January 25, 1646; Waller’s victory at Alresford, March 29, 1644; Essex’s surrender in Cornwall on September 2, 1644; and the battle of Marston on July 2, 1644. [back]
Note 31. Whoever will take the pains to read the king’s letters in Clarendon’s State Papers, will see that this is a true representation of his sentiments; but Heylin pretends the failure of the treaty arose from the extreme pertinacity of the rigid presbyterians: we may very well allow both their share.—J. H. [back]
Note 32. It is suggested by Rapin and others that this new-model and self-denying ordinance arose not from the motives here set down, but merely from intrigue; yet Whitelocke, who even spoke against it, p. 123, shows the indispensable necessity for such a new model. ‘Some members of the house were sent to their generals to complain of their remissness. The Earl of Manchester was under a kind of accusation, the lord-general in discontent, Waller not much otherwise, the forces not carefully ordered, and the parliament business in an unsettled condition, so that it was high time for some other course to be taken by them’. Mr. Sprigge demonstrates this more fully. He says, ‘Cromwell was absent in the west when the exemption was voted; that he had come to Windsor over-night to kiss the general’s hand, and take his leave on quitting the service, but the following morning, ere he came from his chamber, those commands, than which he thought of nothing less in all the world, came to him from the committee of both kingdoms, in obedience to which he immediately marched away’. And further, ‘that the house did this for their own happiness, and that of their general, Fairfax’.
  Mrs. Hutchinson was sufficiently observant of Cromwell’s artifices to have accused him of it on this occasion, if he had deserved it.—J. H. [back]
Note 33. ‘The governor charged the wench to say nothing of it, and the next day had all Covenant rolls searched, to see if he could own the hand, but could find none to do it. Then, the sabbath-day, after sermon was ended in the afternoon, he called the whole town together, and read the letter to them, and offered £50 to whomsoever could either discover the hand, or anything of the plot, but he could never hear more of it’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 34. Hurds or hards—coarse flax, the refuse of flax or hemp.—Halliwell. [back]
Note 35. Closings, closes, fields, vulg. Notts. closen.—J. H. [back]
Note 36. The Note-Book calls this troop ‘the best armed and fullest in the garrison, for it consisted of fourscore or thereabouts’. The whole of this incident is related at much greater length in the Note-Book. Whitelocke, who mentions the skirmish, makes the date of it June 1644. [back]
Note 37. ‘The governor called Captain Palmer, Captain-lieutenant Palmer, and the rest of the officers together’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 38. Captain Philip Pendock, who was complained against by Lord Clare in November 1645, for his plundering propensities. ‘A kind of freeholder’ Clare contemptuously terms him.—Lords Journals, vii. 667. [back]
Note 39. ‘The governor then sent Captain-lieutenant Palmer with his troop to fetch in one Shipman of Scarrington, and having before, when he perceived Pendock’s backwardness, sent Cornet Peirson with a party of men, into Carcolston, to receive further intelligence, and bring in some malignants, according to the committee’s warrants, said he must go to fetch in a party he had sent out, and went to Carcolston, where, as soon as he came, the alarum was brought to him, that two or three hundred horse were quartered at Sierston’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 40. Captain-lieutenants Herne and Cartwright.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 41. Lieutenant Smith and Cornet Peirson.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 42. ‘Except Mr. Huet’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 43. ‘Plumptre was very seditious and active in the meantime against the governor, and Captain Dolphin being in the town, was called by him into a room at Widow Millington’s, where he was questioned whether he remembered some passages concerning his imprisonment, which he answering he had almost forgot, Plumptre bade him call them to memory, for he should be questioned upon oath concerning them; Mason also was in the room, and they were contriving some articles against the governor for committing Wandall’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 44. ‘He sent him word he had finished his business and intended to go to London, and would have a convoy in spite of his teeth, and if while he lay out of town he were taken, somebody should answer it, and so went to Snenton.’—Note-Book. [back]
Note 45. About August 15, 1644, Calendar of Domestic State Papers 1644, pp. 431–2. [back]
Note 46. See the longer account extracted from the Note-Book and printed in Appendix XXV. [back]
Note 47. Sir Politic Wouldbe is a character in Jonson’s Volpone. Explaining his own character, Sir Politic Wouldbe says:
                  ‘I do love
To note and to observe: though I live out,
Free from the active torrent, yet I’d mark
The currents and the passages of things,
For mine own private use; and know the ebbs
And flows of state’.
 [back]
Note 48. In the Note-Book Major Widmerpoole’s name comes last. ‘Major Widmerpoole then being of the doubtful gender’. [back]
Note 49. Of this custom of applying to the parliament for reparation or compensation, and of its being granted generally at the expense of delinquents or cavaliers, there appear many instances in Whitelocke—no doubt many abuses crept in. In Walker’s Hist. of Indepen., p. 81, Mr. Millington is declared to have received in this manner £2,000.—J. H. [back]
Note 50. On the Earl of Manchester’s movements after the capture of York the documents contained in the volume published by the Camden Society, entitled Manchester’s Quarrel with Cromwell, give detailed information.
  York surrendered on July 16, 1644, and Manchester marched south on the 20th (Rushworth, III. ii, 641). Tickhill was taken by a detachment under Lieutenant-colonel John Lilburne on 26th July. Then, sending a strong force under Crawford to besiege Sheffield, Manchester marched to Welbeck, which surrendered on August 2 (Rushworth and Manchester’s letter of August 6 in the Camden Society’s volume). After the surrender of Welbeck Manchester established himself at Lincoln, and quartered his troops near Gainsborough. Crawford took Sheffield (August 10), Stavely House (August 12), and Bolsover Castle (August 14), and then joined Gell, before Wingfield Manor, which surrendered on August 21. Why the remaining royalist fortresses in the district were not taken is explained in Cromwell’s charge against Manchester (Manchester’s Quarrel with Cromwell, p. 81). A few weeks earlier, Gell, aided by Grey, had taken Wilney Ferry (July 18, Rushworth, III. ii, 769; Vicars, Parliamentary Chronicle, iii, 287). A vigorous attack on Newark would have put an end to the war in Nottinghamshire, but Manchester delayed until he was summoned to take part in the second battle of Newbury.
  The Note-Book, after mentioning the surrender of Welbeck, adds—‘There came great benefit to this garrison thereby, for there were found in the house of Mrs. Markham and other malignants goods to the value of —— thousand pounds, besides much money that was gathered out of that side of the country, and brought into the treasury at Nottingham, amongst which Lieutenant-colonel Hutchinson’s troop went to a malignant’s house, and brought in almost six hundred pounds in gold’. Welbeck, however, did not long remain in the possession of the parliament. It was surprised on July 16, 1645, by Major Jammot and a party from Newark (Mercurius Belgicus, Diary of Richard Symonds, p. 224). It was finally disgarrisoned by agreement in Nov. 1645, the parliamentarians at the same time disgarrisoning Wingfield (Letter-Book of the Committee of Both Kingdoms, Nov. 11–13, 1645). [back]
Note 51. Just before the account of White’s mission to York, the Note-Book gives the following relation: ‘After Wingfield Manor was taken, there was a design against Wiverton House, on which the governor intended to go himself, and command the party; and, just as he was marching forth, there was a paper given him where Captain White, who thought he had an excellent faculty that way, had drawn in the name of the committee a summons to summon them to deliver the house to the committee, which summons the committee had signed. The governor put the summons in his pocket, and told them he could do it without them’.
  In the siege of Wingfield here alluded to, some of the Nottingham forces also took part. According to Gell’s True Account, Colonel Thornhagh sent his major and several troops of horse, whilst Colonel Hutchinson sent two hundred foot. [back]
Note 52. A letter from Lord Fairfax to the Committee of Both Kingdoms on this subject, dated Oct. 4, 1644, is given in Appendix XXIII. [back]
Note 53. Montgomery Castle was surrendered to Sir Thomas Middleton by Lord Herbert of Cherbury on September 4, 1644. The Shrewsbury cavaliers under Sir Michael Earnley made a determined effort to retake the castle, and besieged Colonel Mytton in it. Middleton marched to relieve Mytton, joined by the Lancashire forces under Sir John Meldrum, those of Cheshire under Sir William Brereton, and a Yorkshire regiment under Sir William Fairfax. The besiegers also had been reinforced by Lord Biron. In the battle which took place beneath the walls of the castle (September 18), the royalists were defeated with the loss of one thousand prisoners.—Rushworth, III. ii, 746; Phillips, Civil War in Wales, 247–251. [back]
Note 54. This Mr. Hooper was undoubtedly a person of singular abilities. Mr. Sprigge, in his Anglia Rediviva, mentions him as serving Sir Thomas Fairfax at the siege of Oxford, and other places, as engineer extraordinary, and greatly expediting all his enterprises, the rapidity and number of which were surprising: he was at the siege of Raglan Castle, the last garrison that surrendered; he came again to Nottingham during Colonel Hutchinson’s government, and by the list of the garrison in Deering’s Nottingham, appears to have continued with Captain Poulton.—J. H. [back]
Note 55. Sunday, September 29, at St. Mary’s, according to the Note-Book. [back]
Note 56. Adrian Cooke. ‘Cooke had quartered some soldiers at the house of a malignant fellow, kinsman to Mr. Millington and of his name, to whom Millington had given a protection that he should quarter none; but the governor bade Cooke quarter them there. The man telling Cooke that he would quarter none, for he was a soldier, Cooke told him he was mistaken, for at the best he was but a watchman; for this he was discharged his place by the committee, and by them also Colishaw was the next day appointed quartermaster’.—Note-Book. [back]
Note 57. The Note-Book gives this amongst other instances. ‘Wednesday there was an alarum, the lieutenant-colonel went down and appointed the men to their places, but riding with the major to the guards, he found almost no men left, whereupon inquiring of the soldiers what were become of the men, he was answered they were gone forth with Colonel Chadwick, so they stayed till his return, who soon after came home with the soldiers, himself having no weapons either of offence or defence, but a cudgel cut out of the crabtree (his own stock). The lieutenant-colonel told him he was an early man; he said he went out to have done service and redeemed the poor people’s cattle, but that he came too late. The major told him he had no order to draw out the men: he said he had as much to do to command them as any man in the garrison, and he would command them’. [back]
Note 58. For an account of the arrangements of this system of posts see Calendar of Domestic State Papers 1644–5, p. 170. [back]
Note 59. The Letter Book of the Derby House Committee contained an order sent to Sir John Gell to send up at once any evidence against Colonel Hutchinson. The order is dated October 19, 1644. [back]
Note 60. It is averred in the History of Independency, ‘that the active speaking men pack committees who carry all the business of the house as they please, and when the matter is too bad, smother it with artificial delays’.—J. H. [back]
Note 61. Castilian means belonging to the castle, i.e., of the governor’s party. The word is used in accounts of the siege of Pontefract Castle in 1649, to signify the besieged. See the Surtees Society’s Miscellanea, 1860, Journal of the Sieges of Pontefract Castle, pp. 106, 108. [back]
Note 62. In the remonstrance attached to the petition of November 12, 1644, against the governor and his supporters, its authors complain that some of our pious and conscionable ministers here residing, by whose godly labours amongst us this garrison without doubt hath prospered much better than otherwise it could have done, and by whom our hearts have been much supported in the midst of all distresses, yet by those parties and prosecutors above are most uncivilly used, and with cavalier-like language abused, one being called to his face “proud priest”, “peevish priest” and “factious priest”, having the lie given unto him, and a trencher offered to be thrown at his head, another that his preaching is factious’.—Nottingham Records, v. 230. [back]
Note 63. On November 12, 1644. The vindication and petition referred to are printed in Nottingham Records, vol. v. pp. 228–232. The petitioners complain that the ‘governor began these differences by his high carriage’ and speak of him as ‘violent and passionate’. They desire that the government of the garrison may be handed over to the committee. The petition seems never to have been presented, and was cancelled by order on 13th October, 1646. [back]
Note 64. A list of names is given in the Note-Book. Besides those in the text it mentions Goodal, Upton, Martin, Rily, and Smith. [back]
Note 65. This appears to have taken place in November 1644. Sir John Gell says that he had just before established a garrison at Barton Park to block up Tutbury. ‘Leicestershire committee seeing this sent to Colonel Gell for his assistance to set up a garrison at Coleorton, within a mile, and opposite to Ashby de la Zouch. Thereupon he sent them all the horse and dragoons he could well spire; and so continued there all the month of November 1644 till it was perfected’.—A True Relation, etc. [back]
Note 66. French—Fougue, fury or passion.—J. H. [back]
Note 67. Colonel Rossiter gained a similar success about November 18, when, according to The True Informer, he drew forth a party of horse from Lincoln, and surprised the cavaliers about two miles from Newark, capturing about two hundred men and several officers. The exploits mentioned in the text are described in a letter from Nottingham in the London Post, No. 16, December 17, 1644. ‘After our governor’s return from London, Colonel Thorney gave a great blow to a party of Sir John Girlington’s horse at Muskham Bridge, whereof no doubt you have received intelligence before this time. On Tuesday last the cavaliers were gathering in their contributions and assessments in the country, whom a small party of Lieutenant-colonel Hutchinson’s horse encountered, in which skirmish it happened that twenty of our men charged thirty of the enemy and took them prisoners, with their horses and arms, and with them a colonel of great repute, who is uncle to the governor of Shelford. The prisoners were all sent hither unto Nottingham, being conveyed with a small party of our men, which a fresh party of the enemy’s having notice of, they charged the convoy, and the other party of our men opportunely coming in, we took of them there also seven more prisoners and ten horses…. We have since taken three more cavaliers, who say they believe that the devil is in us roundheads, and that at last we will fetch them all away, though by twos and by threes’. [back]
Note 68. The Note-Book supplies this amongst other instances: ‘The committee in the absence of the governor had pressed some men, which by special warrant were appointed to be pressed for the completing of his regiment, which were listed under Hall and Selby, wherefore at his return the governor demanded his men, but because Selby was thought a man that might be useful for the garrison, the governor was content to let him have the men, but those which Hall had he took away and put into the foot companies’. [back]
Note 69. At Southwell, says the Note-Book. [back]
Note 70. The Note-Book gives a fuller account of the capture of Thurgarton. ‘Then the governor sent him, the major’s, Captain Poulton’s and Captain Wright’s companies, under the command of Captain Poulton, who, as soon as they came, were commanded to fall on, yet no provision made of anything fit to make the breach; however, the men went up to the church and took it, entering at the windows, and then Captain Poulton’s men took the stables, and soon after the house was yielded’. [back]
Note 71. The Nottingham horse were so disorderly, that ‘out of six hundred, there seldom were above six score at Southwell’.—Note-Book. The surprise referred to in the text is described in Mercurius Aulicus for January 6, 1645. It states that on December 22, the garrison of Newark, ‘having intelligence of two troops of the rebels quartered at Upton, Colonel Eyre went out with some Newark horse, fetched a compass round about the rebels’ headquarter, and broke down a bridge; then gallantly charged the rebels, who instantly fled towards that bridge, which being broken, made four of them drown themselves for haste; the rest, two whole troops, both officers and soldiers, were taken to a man, who, with their colours, horses, and arms, were brought prisoners to Newark. Since which time the rebels are all driven from the parts about Newark, as you shall hear in the next’. The Note-Book states that the two troops were those of Captains Barrett and Samson. [back]
 
 
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