Jean Jacques Rousseau (17121778). On the Inequality among Mankind. The Harvard Classics. 190914.
JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU was born at Geneva, June 28, 1712, the son of a watchmaker of French origin. His education was irregular, and though he tried many professionsincluding engraving, music, and teachinghe found it difficult to support himself in any of them. The discovery of his talent as a writer came with the winning of a prize offered by the Academy of Dijon for a discourse on the question, Whether the progress of the sciences and of letters has tended to corrupt or to elevate morals. He argued so brilliantly that the tendency of civilization was degrading that he became at once famous. The discourse here printed on the causes of inequality among men was written in a similar competition.
He now concentrated his powers upon literature, producing two novels, La Nouvelle Héloise, the forerunner and parent of endless sentimental and picturesque fictions; and Émile, ou lEducation, a work which has had enormous influence on the theory and practise of pedagogy down to out own time and in which the Savoyard Vicar appears, who is used as the mouthpiece for Rousseaus own religious ideas. Le Contrat Social (1762) elaborated the doctrine of the discourse on inequality. Both historically and philosophically it is unsound; but it was the chief literary source of the enthusiasm for liberty, fraternity, and equality, which inspired the leaders of the French Revolution, and its effects passed far beyond France.
His most famous work, the Confessions, was published after his death. This book is a mine of information as to his life, but it is far from trustworthy; and the picture it gives of the authors personality and conduct, though painted in such a way as to make it absorbingly interesting, is often unpleasing in the highest degree. But it is one of the great autobiographies of the world.
During Rousseaus later years he was the victim of the delusion of persecution; and although he was protected by a succession of good friends, he came to distrust and quarrel with each in turn. He died at Ermenonville, near Paris, July 2, 1778, the most widely influential French writer of his age.
The Savoyard Vicar and his Profession of Faith are introduced into Émile not, according to the author, because he wishes to exhibit his principles as those which should be taught, but to give an example of the way in which religious matters should be discussed with the young. Nevertheless, it is universally recognized that these opinions are Rousseaus own, and represent in short form his characteristic attitude toward religious belief. The Vicar himself is believed to combine the traits of two Savoyard priests whom Rousseau knew in his youth. The more important was the Abbé Gaime, whom he had known at Turin; the other, the Abbé Gâtier, who had taught him at Annecy.