James Ford Rhodes (18481927). History of the Civil War, 18611865 1917.
should his communications with White House be severed. On the night of Gainess Mill, he gave the necessary orders to his corps commanders, who began their preparations next morning and wrought the whole day without molestation. Six hundred tons of ammunition, food, forage, medical and other supplies were the daily requirements of this army1 and the change of base in presence of a victorious foe of equal number was attended with great difficulty and could not have been made had not the United States had the command of the sea. By sunrise of June 29, the Confederates discovered that the Union Army had fled toward the James river, and they started in immediate pursuit, bringing on a fight at Savages Station in which they were repulsed. Next day was fought the stubborn battle of Glendale or Fraysers Farm, in which neither side prevailed, although the Union troops continued their retreat in good order. It was thought that, if Jackson had come up at the time he was expected, a portion of McClellans army would have been destroyed or captured.2
The morning of July 1 found the whole Union Army posted on Malvern Hill, a strong position near the James river. By noon the Confederates appeared and attacked with bravery but were mowed down by the fire of the splendid artillery and the efficiently directed infantry of the Union Army. Porter was in the fight and his generalship was of a high order. The Confederates were repulsed at all points with a loss double that of the Federals.3 McClellan was not with his fighting troops in any one of the battles during the retreat, but was doing engineers work in preparing the position for the next day. In the Seven Days Battles, as the fighting is called from June 25 to July 1 inclusive, McClellans