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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Judicial branch
 
 
CountryJudicial branch
Afghanistanthe constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by the president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate High Courts and Appeals Courts; there is also a minister of justice; a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged with investigating human rights abuses and war crimes
AlbaniaConstitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts
AlgeriaSupreme Court
American SamoaHigh Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)
AndorraTribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
AngolaSupreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)
AnguillaHigh Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
Antigua and BarbudaEastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice
ArgentinaSupreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)
note: the Supreme Court currently has two unfilled vacancies, and the Argentine Congress is considering a bill to reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five
ArmeniaConstitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
ArubaCommon Court of Justice of Aruba (judges are appointed by the monarch)
AustraliaHigh Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
AustriaSupreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
AzerbaijanSupreme Court
Bahamas, ThePrivy Council (London); Courts of Appeal; Supreme (lower) Court; magistrates courts
BahrainHigh Civil Appeals Court
BangladeshSupreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
BarbadosSupreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services); Caribbean Court of Justice is the highest court of appeal
BelarusSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
BelgiumSupreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice Council)
BelizeSupreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)
BeninConstitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
BermudaSupreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
BhutanSupreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch); note - the draft constitution establishes a Supreme Court, which will serve as chief court of appeal
BoliviaSupreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases); Constitutional Tribunal (5 primary or titulares and 5 alternate or suplente magistrates appointed by Congress; to rule on constitutional issues); National Electoral Court (6 members elected by Congress, Supreme Court, the President, and the political party with the highest vote in the last election for 4-year terms)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities); a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005
note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
BotswanaHigh Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
BrazilSupreme Federal Tribunal or STF (11 ministers are appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life); note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70
British Virgin IslandsEastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction
BruneiSupreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Shariah courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)
BulgariaSupreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Burkina FasoSupreme Court; Appeals Court
Burmaremnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive
BurundiSupreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
CambodiaSupreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
CameroonSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and six substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
CanadaSupreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Cape VerdeSupreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Cayman IslandsSummary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
Central African RepublicSupreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Inferior Courts
ChadSupreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
ChileSupreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected every three years by the 20-member court); Constitutional Tribunal
ChinaSupreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts)
Christmas IslandSupreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsSupreme Court; Magistrate's Court
Colombiafour roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
ComorosSupreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of the republic)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theConstitutional Court; Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation; Council of State; High Military Court; plus civil and military courts and tribunals
Congo, Republic of theSupreme Court or Cour Supreme
Cook IslandsHigh Court
Costa RicaSupreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for renewable eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)
Cote d'IvoireSupreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members
CroatiaSupreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
CubaPeople's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)
CyprusSupreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)
note: there is also a Supreme Court in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots
Czech RepublicSupreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
DenmarkSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch for life)
DjiboutiSupreme Court or Cour Supreme
DominicaEastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the Court of Appeal and the High Court (located in Saint Lucia; one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Dominican RepublicSupreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the National Judicial Council comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and an additional non-governing party congressional representative)
EcuadorSupreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; in December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
EgyptSupreme Constitutional Court
El SalvadorSupreme Court or Corte Suprema (15 judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly; the 15 judges are assigned to four Supreme Court chambers - constitutional, civil, penal, and administrative conflict)
Equatorial GuineaSupreme Tribunal
EritreaHigh Court - regional, subregional, and village courts; also have military and special courts
EstoniaNational Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
EthiopiaFederal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
European UnionCourt of Justice of the European Communities (ensures that the treaties are interpreted and applied uniformly throughout the EU; resolve constitutional issues among the EU institutions) - 27 justices (one from each member state) appointed for a six-year term; note - for the sake of efficiency, the court can sit with 13 justices known as the "Grand Chamber"; Court of First Instance - 27 justices appointed for a six-year term
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Faroe Islandsnone
FijiSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
FinlandSupreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
FranceSupreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat
French PolynesiaCourt of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Court of the First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law or Tribunal Administratif
GabonSupreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three chambers - Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts
Gambia, TheSupreme Court
GeorgiaSupreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's or chairman of the Supreme Court's recommendation); Constitutional Court; first and second instance courts
GermanyFederal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
GhanaSupreme Court
GibraltarSupreme Court; Court of Appeal
GreeceSupreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council
GreenlandHigh Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
GrenadaEastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of a court of Appeal and a High Court of Justice (a High Court judge is assigned to and resides in Grenada)
GuamFederal District Court (judge is appointed by the president); Territorial Superior Court (judges appointed for eight-year terms by the governor)
GuatemalaConstitutional Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad is Guatemala's highest court (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)
GuernseyRoyal Court
GuineaCourt of First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Guinea-BissauSupreme Court or Supremo Tribunal da Justica (consists of nine justices appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure; final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases); Regional Courts (one in each of nine regions; first court of appeals for Sectoral Court decisions; hear all felony cases and civil cases valued at over $1,000); 24 Sectoral Courts (judges are not necessarily trained lawyers; they hear civil cases under $1,000 and misdemeanor criminal cases)
GuyanaSupreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the High Court and the Judicial Court of Appeal, with right of final appeal to the Caribbean Court of Justice
HaitiSupreme Court or Cour de Cassation
Holy See (Vatican City)there are three tribunals responsible for civil and criminal matters within Vatican City; three other tribunals rule on issues pertaining to the Holy See
note: judicial duties were established by the Motu Proprio of Pope PIUS XII on 1 May 1946
HondurasSupreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 judges are elected for seven-year terms by the National Congress)
Hong KongCourt of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
HungaryConstitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
IcelandSupreme Court or Haestirettur (justices are appointed for life by the Minister of Justice); eight district courts (justices are appointed for life by the Minister of Justice)
IndiaSupreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed for "proved misbehavior")
IndonesiaSupreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006
IranThe Supreme Court (Qeveh Qazaieh) and the four-member High Council of the Judiciary have a single head and overlapping responsibilities; together they supervise the enforcement of all laws and establish judicial and legal policies; lower courts include a special clerical court, a revolutionary court, and a special administrative court
Iraqthe Iraq Constitution calls for the federal judicial power to be comprised of the Higher Juridical Council, Federal Supreme Court, Federal Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission and other federal courts that are regulated in accordance with the law
IrelandSupreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)
Isle of ManHigh Court of Justice (justices are appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor)
IsraelSupreme Court (justices appointed by Judicial Selection Committee - made up of all three branches of the government; mandatory retirement age is 70)
ItalyConstitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
JamaicaSupreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
JapanSupreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
JerseyRoyal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff)
JordanCourt of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)
KazakhstanSupreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)
KenyaCourt of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
KiribatiCourt of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president
Korea, NorthCentral Court (judges are elected by the Supreme People's Assembly)
Korea, SouthSupreme Court (justices appointed by president with consent of National Assembly); Constitutional Court (justices appointed by president based partly on nominations by National Assembly and Chief Justice of the court)
KosovoSupreme Court judges are appointed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); district courts judges are appointed by the SRSG; municipal courts judges are appointed by the SRSG
KosovoSupreme Court judges are appointed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); district courts judges are appointed by the SRSG; municipal courts judges are appointed by the SRSG
KuwaitHigh Court of Appeal
KyrgyzstanSupreme Court; Constitutional Court (judges of both the Supreme and Constitutional Courts are appointed for 10-year terms by the Jorgorku Kenesh on the recommendation of the president; their age limit is 70 years); Higher Court of Arbitration; Local Courts (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council on Legal Affairs for a probationary period of five years, then 10 years)
LaosPeople's Supreme Court (the president of the People's Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee; the vice president of the People's Supreme Court and the judges are appointed by the National Assembly Standing Committee)
LatviaSupreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament); Constitutional Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament)
Lebanonfour Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases); Constitutional Council (called for in Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
LesothoHigh Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch acting on the advice of the Prime Minister); Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts; customary or traditional court
LiberiaSupreme Court
LibyaSupreme Court
LiechtensteinSupreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal or Obergericht
LithuaniaConstitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Luxembourgjudicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
MacauCourt of Final Appeal in Macau Special Administrative Region
MacedoniaSupreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
MadagascarSupreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
MalawiSupreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts
MalaysiaCivil Courts include Federal Court, Court of Appeal, High Court of Malaya on peninsula Malaysia, and High Court of Sabah and Sarawak in states of Borneo (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister); Sharia Courts include Sharia Appeal Court, Sharia High Court, and Sharia Subordinate Courts at state-level and deal with religious and family matters such as custody, divorce, and inheritance, only for Muslims; decisions of Sharia courts cannot be appealed to civil courts
MaldivesHigh Court
MaliSupreme Court or Cour Supreme
MaltaConstitutional Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
Marshall IslandsSupreme Court; High Court; Traditional Rights Court
MauritaniaSupreme Court or Cour Supreme; Court of Appeals; lower courts
MauritiusSupreme Court
MayotteSupreme Court or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
MexicoSupreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (justices or ministros are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)
Micronesia, Federated States ofSupreme Court
MoldovaSupreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
MonacoSupreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)
MongoliaSupreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
MontenegroConstitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
MontserratEastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court)
MoroccoSupreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
MozambiqueSupreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
NamibiaSupreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission)
NauruSupreme Court
NepalSupreme Court or Sarbochha Adalat (chief justice is appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Constitutional Council; the other judges are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council)
NetherlandsSupreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch)
Netherlands AntillesJoint High Court of Justice (judges appointed by the monarch)
New CaledoniaCourt of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court
New ZealandSupreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the Governor-General
NicaraguaSupreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (16 judges elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly)
NigerState Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel
NigeriaSupreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
NiueSupreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue
Norfolk IslandSupreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions
Northern Mariana IslandsCommonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal District Court
NorwaySupreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
OmanSupreme Court
note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has judges who practice secular and Shari'a law
PakistanSupreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
PalauSupreme Court; Court of Common Pleas; Land Court
PanamaSupreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed for 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal
Papua New GuineaSupreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
ParaguaySupreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
PeruSupreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
PhilippinesSupreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
Pitcairn IslandsMagistrate's Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Judicial Officers are appointed by the Governor
PolandSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period); Constitutional Tribunal (judges are chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms)
PortugalSupreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Puerto RicoSupreme Court; Appellate Court; Court of First Instance composed of two sections: a Superior Court and a Municipal Court (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate)
QatarCourts of First Instance, Appeal, and Cassation; an Administrative Court and a Constitutional Court were established in 2007; note - all judges are appointed by Amiri Decree based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council for renewable three-year terms
RomaniaSupreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
RussiaConstitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
RwandaSupreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Saint HelenaMagistrate's Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Saint Kitts and NevisEastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Kitts and Nevis)
Saint LuciaEastern Caribbean Supreme Court (jurisdiction extends to Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
Saint Pierre and MiquelonSuperior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesEastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
SamoaCourt of Appeal; Supreme Court; District Court; Land and Titles Court
San MarinoCouncil of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Sao Tome and PrincipeSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Saudi ArabiaSupreme Council of Justice
SenegalConstitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
SerbiaConstitutional Court, Supreme Court (to become court of cassation under new constitution), appellate courts, district courts, municipal courts
SeychellesCourt of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
Sierra LeoneSupreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court
SingaporeSupreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
SlovakiaSupreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)
SloveniaSupreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Solomon IslandsCourt of Appeal
Somaliafollowing the breakdown of the central government, most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Shari'a (Islamic) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences
South AfricaConstitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
SpainSupreme Court or Tribunal Supremo
Sri LankaSupreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
SudanConstitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
SurinameCantonal Courts and a Court of Justice as an appellate court (justices are nominated for life)
SwazilandHigh Court; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
SwedenSupreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
SwitzerlandFederal Supreme Court (judges elected for six-year terms by the Federal Assembly)
SyriaSupreme Judicial Council (appoints and dismisses judges; headed by the President); national level - Supreme Constitutional Court (adjudicates electoral disputes and rules on constitutionality of laws and decrees; justices appointed for four-year terms by the President); Court of Cassation; Appeals Courts (Appeals Courts represent an intermediate level between the Court of Cassation and local level courts); local level - Magistrate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Juvenile Courts; Customs Courts; specialized courts - Economic Security Courts (hear cases related to economic crimes); Supreme State Security Court (hear cases related to national security); Personal Status Courts (religious; hear cases related to marriage and divorce)
TaiwanJudicial Yuan (justices appointed by the president with consent of the Legislative Yuan)
TajikistanSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
TanzaniaPermanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
ThailandSupreme Court or Sandika (judges appointed by the monarch)
Timor-LesteSupreme Court of Justice - constitution calls for one judge to be appointed by National Parliament and rest appointed by Superior Council for Judiciary; note - until Supreme Court is established, Court of Appeals is highest court
TogoCourt of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
TokelauSupreme Court in New Zealand exercises civil and criminal jurisdiction in Tokelau
TongaSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (Chief Justice and high court justices from overseas chosen and approved by Privy Council)
Trinidad and TobagoSupreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Caribbean Court of Appeals member; Court of Appeals; the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
TunisiaCourt of Cassation or Cour de Cassation
TurkeyConstitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
TurkmenistanSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Turks and Caicos IslandsSupreme Court; Court of Appeal
TuvaluHigh Court (a chief justice visits twice a year to preside over its sessions; its rulings can be appealed to the Court of Appeal in Fiji); eight Island Courts (with limited jurisdiction)
UgandaCourt of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
UkraineSupreme Court; Constitutional Court
United Arab EmiratesUnion Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
United KingdomHouse of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are appointed by the monarch for life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary
United StatesSupreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts
UruguaySupreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
UzbekistanSupreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
VanuatuSupreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission)
VenezuelaSupreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)
VietnamSupreme People's Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Virgin IslandsUS District Court of the Virgin Islands (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Superior Court of the Virgin Islands (judges appointed by the governor for 10-year terms)
Wallis and Futunajustice generally administered under French law by the high administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu; a court of appeal is located in Noumea, New Caledonia
YemenSupreme Court
ZambiaSupreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
ZimbabweSupreme Court; High Court

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