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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Climate
 
 
CountryClimate
Afghanistanarid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Akrotiritemperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Albaniamild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Algeriaarid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
American Samoatropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation
Andorratemperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Angolasemiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Anguillatropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Antarcticasevere low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing
Antigua and Barbudatropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Arctic Oceanpolar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow
Argentinamostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Armeniahighland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Arubatropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Ashmore and Cartier Islandstropical
Atlantic Oceantropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Australiagenerally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Austriatemperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Azerbaijandry, semiarid steppe
Bahamas, Thetropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Bahrainarid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Bangladeshtropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Barbadostropical; rainy season (June to October)
Belaruscold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Belgiumtemperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Belizetropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Benintropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Bermudasubtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Bhutanvaries; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Boliviavaries with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Bosnia and Herzegovinahot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Botswanasemiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Bouvet Islandantarctic
Brazilmostly tropical, but temperate in south
British Indian Ocean Territorytropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
British Virgin Islandssubtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Bruneitropical; hot, humid, rainy
Bulgariatemperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Burkina Fasotropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Burmatropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
Burundiequatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Cambodiatropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Cameroonvaries with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Canadavaries from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Cape Verdetemperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Cayman Islandstropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)
Central African Republictropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Chadtropical in south, desert in north
Chiletemperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
Chinaextremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Christmas Islandtropical with a wet season (December to April) and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Clipperton Islandtropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, wet season (May to October)
Cocos (Keeling) Islandstropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year
Colombiatropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Comorostropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thetropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
Congo, Republic of thetropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Cook Islandstropical oceanic; moderated by trade winds; a dry season from April to November and a more humid season from December to March
Coral Sea Islandstropical
Costa Ricatropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands
Cote d'Ivoiretropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
CroatiaMediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Cubatropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
Cyprustemperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Czech Republictemperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Denmarktemperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Dhekeliatemperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Djiboutidesert; torrid, dry
Dominicatropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Dominican Republictropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
Ecuadortropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Egyptdesert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
El Salvadortropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Equatorial Guineatropical; always hot, humid
Eritreahot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
Estoniamaritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Ethiopiatropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
European Unioncold temperate; potentially subarctic in the north to temperate; mild wet winters; hot dry summers in the south
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; average annual rainfall is 24 inches in Stanley; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate
Faroe Islandsmild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Fijitropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Finlandcold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Francemetropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral
French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average
Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)
French Polynesiatropical, but moderate
French Southern and Antarctic LandsIle Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul: oceanic with persistent westerly winds and high humidity
Iles Crozet: windy, cold, wet, and cloudy
Iles Kerguelen: oceanic, cold, overcast, windy
Iles Eparses: tropical
Gabontropical; always hot, humid
Gambia, Thetropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
Gaza Striptemperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Georgiawarm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Germanytemperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Ghanatropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
GibraltarMediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Greecetemperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Greenlandarctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Grenadatropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Guamtropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June), rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation
Guatemalatropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Guernseytemperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast
Guineagenerally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Guinea-Bissautropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Guyanatropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)
Haititropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Heard Island and McDonald Islandsantarctic
Holy See (Vatican City)temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)
Hondurassubtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Hong Kongsubtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Hungarytemperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Icelandtemperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers
Indiavaries from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Indian Oceannortheast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean
Indonesiatropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Iranmostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Iraqmostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
Irelandtemperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Isle of Mantemperate; cool summers and mild winters; overcast about one-third of the time
Israeltemperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Italypredominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Jamaicatropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Jan Mayenarctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog
Japanvaries from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Jerseytemperate; mild winters and cool summers
Jordanmostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Kazakhstancontinental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Kenyavaries from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Kiribatitropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Korea, Northtemperate with rainfall concentrated in summer
Korea, Southtemperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Kosovoinfluenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December
Kosovoinfluenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December
Kuwaitdry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Kyrgyzstandry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Laostropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)
Latviamaritime; wet, moderate winters
LebanonMediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Lesothotemperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Liberiatropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers
LibyaMediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Liechtensteincontinental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Lithuaniatransitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Luxembourgmodified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Macausubtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Macedoniawarm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Madagascartropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Malawisub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Malaysiatropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
Maldivestropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
Malisubtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
MaltaMediterranean; mild, rainy winters; hot, dry summers
Marshall Islandstropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November; islands border typhoon belt
Mauritaniadesert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Mauritiustropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
Mayottetropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Mexicovaries from tropical to desert
Micronesia, Federated States oftropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage
Moldovamoderate winters, warm summers
MonacoMediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Mongoliadesert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
MontenegroMediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Montserrattropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
MoroccoMediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Mozambiquetropical to subtropical
Namibiadesert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Naurutropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)
Navassa Islandmarine, tropical
Nepalvaries from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Netherlandstemperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Netherlands Antillestropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds
New Caledoniatropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid
New Zealandtemperate with sharp regional contrasts
Nicaraguatropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Nigerdesert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Nigeriavaries; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Niuetropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Norfolk Islandsubtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Northern Mariana Islandstropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October
Norwaytemperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Omandry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Pacific Oceanplanetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December
Pakistanmostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Palautropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November
Panamatropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)
Papua New Guineatropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Paracel Islandstropical
Paraguaysubtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
Peruvaries from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Philippinestropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Pitcairn Islandstropical; hot and humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)
Polandtemperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Portugalmaritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Puerto Ricotropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation
Qatararid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Romaniatemperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Russiaranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Rwandatemperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Saint Barthelemytropical, with practically no variation in temperature; has two seasons (dry and humid)
Saint HelenaSaint Helena: tropical marine; mild, tempered by trade winds
Ascension Island: tropical marine; mild, semi-arid
Tristan da Cunha: temperate marine; mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)
Saint Kitts and Nevistropical, tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Saint Luciatropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April, rainy season May to August
Saint Martintemperature averages 80-85 degrees all year long; low humidity, gentle trade winds, brief, intense rain showers; July-Novemeber is the hurricane season
Saint Pierre and Miqueloncold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy
Saint Vincent and the Grenadinestropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Samoatropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October)
San MarinoMediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Sao Tome and Principetropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Saudi Arabiaharsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
Senegaltropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Serbiain the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Seychellestropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Sierra Leonetropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)
Singaporetropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Slovakiatemperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
SloveniaMediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Solomon Islandstropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather
Somaliaprincipally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
South Africamostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsvariable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow
Southern Oceansea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Celsius to -2 degrees Celsius; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter
Spaintemperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Spratly Islandstropical
Sri Lankatropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
Sudantropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Surinametropical; moderated by trade winds
Svalbardarctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Swazilandvaries from tropical to near temperate
Swedentemperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Switzerlandtemperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers
Syriamostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus
Taiwantropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year
Tajikistanmidlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Tanzaniavaries from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Thailandtropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
Timor-Lestetropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
Togotropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Tokelautropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)
Tongatropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Trinidad and Tobagotropical; rainy season (June to December)
Tunisiatemperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Turkeytemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Turkmenistansubtropical desert
Turks and Caicos Islandstropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Tuvalutropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Ugandatropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Ukrainetemperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
United Arab Emiratesdesert; cooler in eastern mountains
United Kingdomtemperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
United Statesmostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
United States Pacific Island Wildlife RefugesBaker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Johnston Atoll and Kingman Reef: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation
Midway Islands: subtropical with cool, moist winters (December to February) and warm, dry summers (May to October); moderated by prevailing easterly winds; most of the 1,067 mm (42 in) of annual rainfall occurs during the winter
Palmyra Atoll: equatorial, hot; located within the low pressure area of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where the northeast and southeast trade winds meet, it is extremely wet with between 4,000-5,000 mm (160-200 in) of rainfall each year
Uruguaywarm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Uzbekistanmostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Vanuatutropical; moderated by southeast trade winds from May to October; moderate rainfall from November to April; may be affected by cyclones from December to April
Venezuelatropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Vietnamtropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Virgin Islandssubtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season September to November
Wake Islandtropical
Wallis and Futunatropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees C
West Banktemperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters
Western Saharahot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew
Worlda wide equatorial band of hot and humid tropical climates - bordered north and south by subtropical temperate zones - that separate two large areas of cold and dry polar climates
Yemenmostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Zambiatropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Zimbabwetropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

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