Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
below the cisterna chyli, on the bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebræ. They receive lymphatic trunks from the lateral and preaortic glands, while their efferents end in the cisterna chyli.
The Lymphatic Vessels of the Abdomen and Pelvis
The lymphatic vessels of the walls of the abdomen and pelvis may be divided into two sets, superficial and deep.
The superficial vessels follow the course of the superficial bloodvessels and converge to the superficial inguinal glands; those derived from the integument of the front of the abdomen below the umbilicus follow the course of the superficial epigastric vessels, and those from the sides of the lumbar part of the abdominal wall pass along the crest of the ilium, with the superficial iliac circumflex vessels. The superficial lymphatic vessels of the gluteal region turn horizontally around the buttock, and join the superficial inguinal and subinguinal glands.
The deep vessels run alongside the principal bloodvessels. Those of the parietes of the pelvis, which accompany the superior and inferior gluteal, and obturator vessels, follow the course of the hypogastric artery, and ultimately join the lateral aortic glands.
Lymphatic Vessels of the Perineum and External Genitals.The lymphatic vessels of the perineum, of the integument of the penis, and of the scrotum (or vulva), follow the course of the external pudendal vessels, and end in the superficial inguinal and subinguinal glands. Those of the glans penis vel clitoridis terminate partly in the deep subinguinal glands and partly in the external iliac glands.
The visceral glands are associated with the branches of the celiac, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Those related to the branches of the celiac artery form three sets, gastric, hepatic, and pancreaticolienal.
The Gastric Glands (Figs. 613,614) consist of two sets, superior and inferior.
The Superior Gastric Glands (lymphoglandulæ gastricæ superiores) accompany the left gastric artery and are divisible into three groups, viz.: (a) upper, on the stem of the artery; (b) lower, accompanying the descending branches of the artery along the cardiac half of the lesser curvature of the stomach, between the two layers of the lesser omentum; and (c) paracardial outlying members of the gastric glands, disposed in a manner comparable to a chain of beads around the neck of the stomach (Jamieson and Dobson1). They receive their afferents from the stomach; their efferents pass to the celiac group of preaortic glands.
The Inferior Gastric Glands (lymphoglandulæ gastricæ inferiores; right gastroepiploic gland), four to seven in number, lie between the two layers of the greater omentum along the pyloric half of the greater curvature of the stomach.
The Hepatic Glands (lymphoglandulæ hepaticæ) (Fig. 613), consist of the following groups: (a) hepatic, on the stem of the hepatic artery, and extending upward along the common bile duct, between the two layers of the lesser omentum, as far as the porta hepatis; the cystic gland, a member of this group, is placed near the neck of the gall-bladder; (b) subpyloric, four or five in number, in close relation to the bifurcation of the gastroduodenal artery, in the angle between the superior and descending parts of the duodenum; an outlying member of this group is sometimes found above the duodenum on the right gastric (pyloric) artery. The glands of the hepatic chain receive afferents from the stomach, duodenum, liver, gall-bladder, and pancreas; their efferents join the celiac group of preaortic glands.
The Pancreaticolienal Glands (lymphoglandulæ pancreaticolienales; splenic glands) (Fig. 614) accompany the lienal (splenic) artery, and are situated in relation to the posterior surface and upper border of the pancreas; one or two members