Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
are provided with valves.1 The left spermatic vein passes behind the iliac colon, and is thus exposed to pressure from the contents of that part of the bowel.
The Ovarian Veins (vv. ovaricæ) correspond with the spermatic in the male; they form a plexus in the broad ligament near the ovary and uterine tube, and communicate with the uterine plexus. They end in the same way as the spermatic veins in the male. Valves are occasionally found in these veins. Like the uterine veins, they become much enlarged during pregnancy.
The Renal Veins (vv. renales) are of large size, and placed in front of the renal arteries. The left is longer than the right, and passes in front of the aorta, just below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. It receives the left spermatic and left inferior phrenic veins, and, generally, the left suprarenal vein. It opens into the inferior vena cava at a slightly higher level than the right.
The Suprarenal Veins (vv. suprarenales) are two in number: the right ends in the inferior vena cava; the left, in the left renal or left inferior phrenic vein.
The Inferior Phrenic Veins (vv. phrenicæ inferiores) follow the course of the inferior phrenic arteris; the right ends in the inferior vena cava; the left is often represented by two branches, one of which ends in the left renal or suprarenal vein, while the other passes in front of the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm and opens into the inferior vena cava.
Note 1. Rivington has pointed out that valves are usually found at the orifices of both the right and left spermatic veins. When no valves exist at the opening of the left spermatic vein into the left renal vein, valves are generally present in the left renal vein within 6 mm. from the orifice of the spermatic vein.Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, vii, 163. [back]