Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
arise from the lower part of the plexuses, opposite the external orifice of the uterus, and open into the corresponding hypogastric vein.
The vaginal plexuses are placed at the sides of the vagina; they communicate with the uterine, vesical, and hemorrhoidal plexuses, and are drained by the vaginal veins, one on either side, into the hypogastric veins.
FIG. 588 The penis in transverse section, showing the bloodvessels. (Testut.) (See enlarged image)
The common iliac veins (vv. iliacæ communes) are formed by the union of the external iliac and hypogastric veins, in front of the sacroiliac articulation; passing obliquely upward toward the right side, they end upon the fifth lumbar vertebra, by uniting with each other at an acute angle to form the inferior vena cava. The right common iliac is shorter than the left, nearly vertical in its direction, and ascends behind and then lateral to its corresponding artery. The left common iliac, longer than the right and more oblique in its course, is at first situated on the medial side of the corresponding artery, and then behind the right common iliac. Each common iliac receives the iliolumbar, and sometimes the lateral sacral veins. The left receives, in addition, the middle sacral vein. No valves are found in these veins.
The Middle Sacral Veins (vv. sacrales mediales) accompany the corresponding artery along the front of the sacrum, and join to form a single vein, which ends in the left common iliac vein; sometimes in the angle of junction of the two iliac veins.
FIG. 589 Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view. (Testut.) (See enlarged image)
Peculiarities.The left common iliac vein, instead of joining with the right in its usual position, occasionally ascends on the left side of the aorta as high as the kidney, where, after receiving the left renal vein, it crosses over the aorta, and then joins with the right vein to form the vena cava. In these cases, the two common iliacs are connected by a small communicating branch at the spot where they are usually united.
The inferior vena cava (v. cava inferior) (Fig. 577), returns to the heart the blood from the parts below the diaphragm. It is formed by the junction of the two common iliac veins, on the right side of the fifth lumbar vertebra. It ascends along