Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
by the union of the venæ comitantes of the inferior epigastric artery, which communicate above with the superior epigastric vein; it joins the external iliac about 1.25 cm. above the inguinal ligament.
The Deep Iliac Circumflex Vein (v. circumflexa ilium profunda) is formed by the union of the venæ comitantes of the deep iliac circumflex artery, and joins the external iliac vein about 2 cm. above the inguinal ligament.
The Pubic Vein communicates with the obturator vein in the obturator foramen, and ascends on the back of the pubis to the external iliac vein.
The hypogastric vein (v. hypogastrica; internal iliac vein) begins near the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen, passes upward behind and slightly medial to the hypogastric artery and, at the brim of the pelvis, joins with the external iliac to form the common iliac vein.
FIG. 584 The femoral vein and its tributaries. (Poirier and Charpy.) (See enlarged image)
Tributaries.With the exception of the fetal umbilical vein which passes upward and backward from the umbilicus to the liver, and the iliolumbar vein which usually joins the common iliac vein, the tributaries of the hypogastric vein correspond with the branches of the hypogastric artery. It receives (a) the gluteal, internal pudendal, and obturator veins, which have their origins outside the pelvis; (b) the lateral sacral veins, which lie in front of the sacrum; and (c) the middle hemorrhoidal, vesical, uterine, and vaginal veins, which originate in venous plexuses connected with the pelvic viscera.