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The Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis (Figs. 585, 586, 587)
Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
dorsal digital veins, unite to form four metatarsal veins; these run backward in the metatarsal spaces, communicate, by means of perforating veins, with the veins on the dorsum of the foot, and unite to form the deep plantar venous arch which lies alongside the plantar arterial arch. From the deep plantar venous arch the medial and lateral plantar veins run backward close to the corresponding arteries and, after communicating with the great and small saphenous veins, unite behind the medial malleolus to form the posterior tibial veins.
  The posterior tibial veins (vv. tibiales posteriores) accompany the posterior tibial artery, and are joined by the peroneal veins.
  The anterior tibial veins (vv. tibiales anteriores) are the upward continuation of the venæ comitantes of the dorsalis pedis artery. They leave the front of the leg by passing between the tibia and fibula, over the interosseous membrane, and unite with the posterior tibial, to form the popliteal vein.
  The Popliteal Vein (v. poplitea) (Fig. 583) is formed by the junction of the anterior and posterior tibial veins at the lower border of the Popliteus; it ascends through the popliteal fossa to the aperture in the Adductor magnus, where it becomes the femoral vein. In the lower part of its course it is placed medial to the artery; between the heads of the Gastrocnemius it is superficial to that vessel; but above the knee-joint, it is close to its lateral side. It receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the popliteal artery, and it also receives the small saphenous vein. The valves in the popliteal vein are usually four in number.
  The femoral vein (v. femoralis) accompanies the femoral artery through the upper two-thirds of the thigh. In the lower part of its course it lies lateral to the artery; higher up, it is behind it; and at the inguinal ligament, it lies on its medial side, and on the same plane. It receives numerous muscular tributaries, and about 4 cm. below the inguinal ligament is joined by the v. profunda femoris; near its termination it is joined by the great saphenous vein. The valves in the femoral vein are three in number.
  The Deep Femoral Vein (v. profunda femoris) receives tributaries corresponding to the perforating branches of the profunda artery, and through these establishes communications with the popliteal vein below and the inferior gluteal vein above. It also receives the medial and lateral femoral circumflex veins.


FIG. 583– The popliteal vein. (See enlarged image)

  The external iliac vein (v. iliaca externa), the upward continuation of the femoral vein, begins behind the inguinal ligament, and, passing upward along the brim of the lesser pelvis, ends opposite the sacroiliac articulation, by uniting with the hypogastric vein to form the common iliac vein. On the right side, it lies at first medial to the artery: but, as it passes upward, gradually inclines behind it. On the left side, it lies altogether on the medial side of the artery. It frequently contains one, sometimes two, valves.

Tributaries.—The external iliac vein receives the inferior epigastric, deep iliac circumflex, and pubic veins.
  The Inferior Epigastric Vein (v. epigastrica inferior; deep epigastric vein) is formed

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