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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
complete clefts, the gill-clefts, opening from the pharynx on to the exterior; perforation, however, does not occur in birds or mammals. The grooves separate a series of rounded bars or arches, the branchial or visceral arches, in which thickening of the mesoderm takes place (Figs. 40 and 41). The dorsal ends of these arches are attached to the sides of the head, while the ventral extremities ultimately meet in the middle line of the neck. In all, six arches make their appearance, but of these only the first four are visible externally. The first arch is named the mandibular, and the second the hyoid; the others have no distinctive names. In each arch a cartilaginous bar, consisting of right and left halves, is developed, and with each of these there is one of the primitive aortic arches.


FIG. 42– Floor of pharynx of embryo shown in Fig. 40. (See enlarged image)



FIG. 43– Head and neck of a human embryo eighteen weeks old, with Meckel’s cartilage and hyoid bar exposed. (After Kölliker.) (See enlarged image)

  The mandibular arch lies between the first branchial groove and the stomodeum; from it are developed the lower lip, the mandible, the muscles of mastication, and the anterior part of the tongue. Its cartilaginous bar is formed by what are known as Meckel’s cartilages (right and left) (Fig. 43); above this the incus is developed. The dorsal end of each cartilage is connected with the ear-capsule and is ossified to form the malleus; the ventral ends meet each other in the region of the symphysis menti, and are usually regarded as undergoing ossification to form that portion of the mandible which contains the incisor teeth. The intervening part of the cartilage disappears; the portion immediately adjacent to the malleus is replaced by fibrous membrane, which constitutes the spheno-mandibular ligament, while from the connective tissue covering the remainder of the cartilage the greater part of the mandible is ossified. From the dorsal ends of the mandibular arch a triangular process, the maxillary process, grows forward on either side and forms the cheek and lateral part of the upper lip. The second or hyoid arch assists in forming the side and front of the neck. From its cartilage are developed the styloid process, stylohyoid ligament, and lesser cornu of the hyoid bone. The stages probably

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