Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
form the angular vein. Occasionally the frontal veins join to form a single trunk, which bifurcates at the root of the nose into the two angular veins.
The supraorbital vein (v. supraorbitalis) begins on the forehead where it communicates with the frontal branch of the superficial temporal vein. It runs downward superficial to the Frontalis muscle, and joins the frontal vein at the medial angle of the orbit to form the angular vein. Previous to its junction with the frontal vein, it sends through the supraorbital notch into the orbit a branch which communicates with the ophthalmic vein; as this vessel passes through the notch, it receives the frontal diploic vein through a foramen at the bottom of the notch.
The angular vein (v. angularis) formed by the junction of the frontal and supraorbital veins, runs obliquely downward, on the side of the root of the nose, to the level of the lower margin of the orbit, where it becomes the anterior facial vein. It receives the veins of the ala nasi, and communicates with the superior ophthalmic vein through the nasofrontal vein, thus establishing an important anastomosis between the anterior facial vein and the cavernous sinus.
The anterior facial vein (v. facialis anterior; facial vein) commences at the side of the root of the nose, and is a direct continuation of the angular vein. It lies behind the external maxillary (facial) artery and follows a less tortuous course. It runs obliquely downward and backward, beneath the Zygomaticus and zygomatic head of the Quadratus labii superioris, descends along the anterior border and then on the superficial surface of the Masseter, crosses over the body of the mandible, and passes obliquely backward, beneath the Platysma and cervical fascia, superficial to the submaxillary gland, the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus. It unites with the posterior facial vein to form the common facial vein, which crosses the external carotid artery and enters the internal jugular vein at a variable point below the hyoid bone. From near its termination a communicating branch often runs down the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus to join the lower part of the anterior jugular vein. The facial vein has no valves, and its walls are not so flaccid as most superficial veins.
Tributaries.The anterior facial vein receives a branch of considerable size, the deep facial vein, from the pterygoid venous plexus. It is also joined by the superior and inferior palpebral, the superior and inferior labial, the buccinator and the masseteric veins. Below the mandible it receives the submental, palatine, and submaxillary veins, and, generally, the vena comitans of the hypoglossal nerve.
The superficial temporal vein (v. temporalis superficialis) begins on the side and vertex of the skull in a plexus which communicates with the frontal and supraorbital veins, with the corresponding vein of the opposite side, and with the posterior auricular and occipital veins. From this net-work frontal and parietal branches arise, and unite above the zygomatic arch to form the trunk of the vein, which is joined in this situation by the middle temporal vein, from the substance of the Temporalis. It then crosses the posterior root of the zygomatic arch, enters the substance of the parotid gland, and unites with the internal maxillary vein to form the posterior facial vein.
Tributaries.The superficial temporal vein receives in its course some parotid veins, articular veins from the temporomandibular joint, anterior auricular veins from the auricula, and the transverse facial from the side of the face. The middle temporal vein receives the orbital vein, which is formed by some lateral palpebral branches, and passes backward between the layers of the temporal fascia to join the superficial temporal vein.
The pterygoid plexus (plexus pterygoideus) is of considerable size, and is situated between the Temporalis and Pterygoideus externus, and partly between the two Pterygoidei. It receives tributaries corresponding with the branches of the internal maxillary artery. Thus it receives the sphenopalatine, the middle meningeal, the deep temporal, the pterygoid, masseteric, buccinator, alveolar, and some palatine