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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
longus and magnus; in front and lateral to it is the Vastus medialis. The femoral vein lies posterior to the upper part, and lateral to the lower part of the artery.

Peculiarities.—Several cases are recorded in which the femoral artery divided into two trunks below the origin of the profunda, and became reunited near the opening in the Adductor magnus, so as to form a single popliteal artery. One occurred in a patient who was operated upon for popliteal aneurism. A few cases have been recorded in which the femoral artery was absent, its place being supplied by the inferior gluteal artery which accompanied the sciatic nerve to the popliteal fossa. The external iliac in these cases was small, and terminated in the profunda. The femoral vein is occasionally placed along the medial side of the artery throughout the entire extent of the femoral trangle; or it may be split so that a large vein is placed on either side of the artery for a greater or lesser distance.

Collateral Circulation.—After ligature of the femoral artery, the main channels for carrying on the circulation are the anastomoses between—(1) the superior and inferior gluteal branches of the hypogastric with the medial and lateral femoral circumflex and first perforating branches of the profunda femoris; (2) the obturator branch of the hypogastric with the medial femoral circumflex of the profunda; (3) the internal pudendal of the hypogastric with the superficial and deep external pudendal of the femoral; (4) the deep iliac circumflex of the external iliac with the lateral femoral circumflex of the profunda and the superficial iliac circumflex of the femoral, and (5) the inferior gluteal of the hypogastric with the perforating branches of the profunda.

Branches.—The branches of the femoral artery are:
Superficial Epigastric.
Deep External Pudendal.
Superficial Iliac Circumflex.
Muscular.
Superficial External Pudendal.
Profunda Femoris.
Highest Genicular.
  The superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis) arises from the front of the femoral artery about 1 cm. below the inguinal ligament, and, passing through the femoral sheath and the fascia cribrosa, turns upward in front of the inguinal ligament, and ascends between the two layers of the superficial fascia of the abdominal wall nearly as far as the umbilicus. It distributes branches to the superficial subinguinal lymph glands, the superficial fascia, and the integument; it anastomoses with branches of the inferior epigastric, and with its fellow of the opposite side.
  The superficial iliac circumflex artery (a. circumflexa ilium superficialis), the smallest of the cutaneous branches, arises close to the preceding, and, piercing the fascia lata, runs lateralward, parallel with the inguinal ligament, as far as the crest of the ilium; it divides into branches which supply the integument of the groin, the superficial fascia, and the superficial subinguinal lymph glands, anastomosing with the deep iliac circumflex, the superior gluteal and lateral femoral circumflex arteries.
  The superficial external pudendal artery (a. pudenda externa superficialis; superficial external pudic artery) arises from the medial side of the femoral artery, close to the preceding vessels, and, after piercing the femoral sheath and fascia cribrosa, courses medialward, across the spermatic cord (or round ligament in the female), to be distributed to the integument on the lower part of the abdomen, the penis and scrotum in the male, and the labium majus in the female, anastomosing with branches of the internal pudendal.
  The deep external pudendal artery (a. pudenda externa profunda; deep external pudic artery), more deeply seated than the preceding, passes medialward across the Pectineus and the Adductor longus muscles; it is covered by the fascia lata, which it pierces at the medial side of the thigh, and is distributed, in the male, to the integument of the scrotum and perineum, in the female to the labium majus; its branches anastomose with the scrotal (or labial) branches of the perineal artery.
  Muscular branches (rami musculares) are supplied by the femoral artery to the Sartorius, Vastus medialis, and Adductores.
  The profunda femoris artery (a. profunda femoris; deep femoral artery) (Fig. 550) is a large vessel arising from the lateral and back part of the femoral artery,

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