Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
The Deep Artery of the Penis (a. profunda penis; artery to the corpus cavernosum), one of the terminal branches of the internal pudendal, arises from that vessel while it is situated between the two fasciæ of the urogenital diaphragm; it pierces the inferior fascia, and, entering the crus penis obliquely, runs forward in the center of the corpus cavernosum penis, to which its branches are distributed.
The Dorsal Artery of the Penis (a. dorsalis penis) ascends between the crus penis and the pubic symphysis, and, piercing the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, passes between the two layers of the suspensory ligament of the penis, and runs forward on the dorsum of the penis to the glans, where it divides into two branches, which supply the glans and prepuce. On the penis, it lies between the dorsal nerve and deep dorsal vein, the former being on its lateral side. It supplies the integument and fibrous sheath of the corpus cavernosum penis, sending branches through the sheath to anastomose with the preceding vessel.
The internal pudendal artery in the female is smaller than in the male. Its origin and course are similar, and there is considerable analogy in the distribution of its branches. The perineal artery supplies the labia pudendi; the artery of the bulb supplies the bulbus vestibuli and the erectile tissue of the vagina; the deep artery of the clitoris supplies the corpus cavernosum clitoridis; and the dorsal artery of the clitoris supplies the dorsum of that organ, and ends in the glans and prepuce of the clitoris.
The inferior gluteal artery (a. glutæa inferior; sciatic artery) (Fig. 544), the larger of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the hypogastric, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh. It passes down on the sacral plexus of nerves and the Piriformis, behind the internal pudendal artery, to the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, through which it escapes from the pelvis between the Piriformis and Coccygeus. It then descends in the interval between the greater trochanter of the femur and tuberosity of the ischium, accompanied by the sciatic and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, and covered by the Glutæus maximus, and is continued down the back of the thigh, supplying the skin, and anastomosing with branches of the perforating arteries.
Inside the pelvis it distributes branches to the Piriformis, Coccygeus, and Levator ani; some branches which supply the fat around the rectum, and occasionally take the place of the middle hemorrhoidal artery; and vesical branches to the fundus of the bladder, vesiculæ seminales, and prostate. Outside the pelvis it gives off the following branches:
Comitans Nervi Ischiadici.
The Muscular Branches supply the Glutæus maximus, anastomosing with the superior gluteal artery in the substance of the muscle; the external rotators, anastomosing with the internal pudendal artery; and the muscles attached to the tuberosity of the ischium, anastomosing with the posterior branch of the obturator and the medial femoral circumflex arteries.
The Coccygeal Branches run medialward, pierce the sacrotuberous ligament, and supply the Glutæus maximus, the integument, and other structures on the back of the coccyx.
The Arteria Comitans Nervi Ischiadici is a long, slender vessel, which accompanies the sciatic nerve for a short distance; it then penetrates it, and runs in its substance to the lower part of the thigh.
The Anastomotic is directed downward across the external rotators, and assists in forming the so-called crucial anastomosis by joining with the first perforating and medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries.
The Articular Branch, generally derived from the anastomotic, is distributed to the capsule of the hip-joint.