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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 

Relations.—The abdominal aorta is covered, anteriorly, by the lesser omentum and stomach, behind which are the branches of the celiac artery and the celiac plexus; below these, by the lienal vein, the pancreas, the left renal vein, the inferior part of the duodenum, the mesentery, and aortic plexus. Posteriorly, it is separated from the lumbar vertebræ and intervertebral fibrocartilages by the anterior longitudinal ligament and left lumbar veins. On the right side it is in relation above with the azygos vein, cisterna chyli, thoracic duct, and the right crus of the diaphragm—the last separating it from the upper part of the inferior vena cava, and from the right celiac ganglion; the inferior vena cava is in contact with the aorta below. On the left side are the left crus of the diaphragm, the left celiac ganglion, the ascending part of the duodenum, and some coils of the small intestine.

Collateral Circulation.—The collateral circulation would be carried on by the anastomoses between the internal mammary and the inferior epigastric; by the free communication between the superior and inferior mesenterics, if the ligature were placed between these vessels; or by the anastomosis between the inferior mesenteric and the internal pudendal, when (as is more common) the point of ligature is below the origin of the inferior mesenteric; and possibly by the anastomoses of the lumbar arteries with the branches of the hypogastric.

Branches.—The branches of the abdominal aorta may be divided into three sets: visceral, parietal, and terminal.
Visceral Branches.Parietal Branches.
Celiac.Inferior Phrenics.
Superior Mesenteric.Lumbars.
Inferior Mesenteric.Middle Sacral.
Middle Suprarenals.
Renals.
Internal Spermatics.Terminal Branches.
Ovarian (in the female).Common Iliacs.
  Of the visceral branches, the celiac artery and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries are unpaired, while the suprarenals, renals, internal spermatics, and ovarian are paired. Of the parietal branches the inferior phrenics and lumbars are paired; the middle sacral is unpaired. The terminal branches are paired.
  The celiac artery (a. cæliaca; celiac axis) (Figs. 532, 533) is a short thick trunk, about 1.25 cm. in length, which arises from the front of the aorta, just below the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm, and, passing nearly horizontally forward, divides into three large branches, the left gastric, the hepatic, and the splenic; it occasionally gives off one of the inferior phrenic arteries.

Relations.—The celiac artery is covered by the lesser omentum. On the right side it is in relation with the right celiac ganglion and the caudate process of the liver; on the left side, with the left celiac ganglion and the cardiac end of the stomach. Below, it is in relation to the upper border of the pancreas, and the lienal vein.
  1. The Left Gastric Artery (a. gastrica sinistra; gastric or coronary artery), the smallest of the three branches of the celiac artery, passes upward and to the left, posterior to the omental bursa, to the cardiac orifice of the stomach. Here it distributes branches to the esophagus, which anastomose with the aortic esophageal arteries; others supply the cardiac part of the stomach, anastomosing with branches of the lienal artery. It then runs from left to right, along the lesser curvature of the stomach to the pylorus, between the layers of the lesser omentum; it gives branches to both surfaces of the stomach and anastomoses with the right gastric artery.
  2. The Hepatic Artery (a. hepatica) in the adult is intermediate in size between the left gastric and lienal; in the fetus, it is the largest of the three branches of the celiac artery. It is first directed forward and to the right, to the upper margin of the superior part of the duodenum, forming the lower boundary of the epiploic foramen (foramen of Winslow). It then crosses the portal vein anteriorly and ascends between the layers of the lesser omentum, and in front of the epiploic foramen, to the porta hepatis, where it divides into two branches, right and left, which supply the corresponding lobes of the liver, accompanying the ramifications of the

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