Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
longus. In the interval between the two Extensores pollicis it is crossed by the digital rami of the superficial branch of the radial nerve which go to the thumb and index finger.
(c) In the hand, it passes from the upper end of the first interosseous space, between the heads of the first Interosseus dorsalis, transversely across the palm between the Adductor pollicis obliquus and Adductor pollicis transversus, but sometimes piercing the latter muscle, to the base of the metacarpal bone of the little finger, where it anastomoses with the deep volar branch from the ulnar artery, completing the deep volar arch(Fig. 528).
Peculiarities.The origin of the radial artery is, in nearly one case in eight, higher than usual; more often it arises from the axillary or upper part of the brachial than from the lower part of the latter vessel. In the forearm it deviates less frequently from its normal position than the ulnar. It has been found lying on the deep fascia instead of beneath it. It has also been observed on the surface of the Brachioradialis, instead of under its medial border; and in turning around the wrist, it has been seen lying on, instead of beneath, the Extensor tendons of the thumb.
Branches.The branches of the radial artery may be divided into three groups, corresponding with the three regions in which the vessel is situated.
In the Forearm.
At the Wrist.
In the Hand.
First Dorsal Metacarpal.
Volaris Indicis Radialis.
The radial recurrent artery (a. recurrens radialis) arises immediately below the elbow. It ascends between the branches of the radial nerve, lying on the Supinator and then between the Brachioradialis and Brachialis, supplying these muscles and the elbow-joint, and anastomosing with the terminal part of the profunda brachii.
The muscular branches (rami musculares) are distributed to the muscles on the radial side of the forearm.
The volar carpal branch (ramus carpeus volaris; anterior radial carpal artery) is a small vessel which arises near the lower border of the Pronator quadratus, and, running across the front of the carpus, anastomoses with the volar carpal branch of the ulnar artery. This anastomosis is joined by a branch from the volar interosseous above, and by recurrent branches from the deep volar arch below, thus forming a volar carpal net-work which supplies the articulations of the wrist and carpus.
The superficial volar branch (ramus volaris superficialis; superficialis vol artery) arises from the radial artery, just where this vessel is about to wind around the lateral side of the wrist. Running forward, it passes through, occasionally over, the muscles of the ball of the thumb, which it supplies, and sometimes anastomoses with the terminal portion of the ulnar artery, completing the superficial volar arch. This vessel varies considerably in size: usually it is very small, and ends in the muscles of the thumb; sometimes it is as large as the continuation of the radial
The dorsal carpal branch (ramus carpeus dorsalis; posterior radial carpal artery) is a small vessel which arises beneath the Extensor tendons of the thumb; crossing the carpus transversely toward the medial border of the hand, it anastomoses with the dorsal carpal branch of the ulnar and with the volar and dorsal interosseous arteries to form a dorsal carpal network. From this network are given off three slender dorsal metacarpal arteries, which run downward on the second, third, and fourth Interossei dorsales and bifurcate into the dorsal digital branches for the supply of the adjacent sides of the middle, ring, and little fingers respectively, communicating with the proper volar digital branches of the superficial volar arch. Near their origins they anastomose with the deep volar arch by the superior perforating arteries, and near their points of bifurcation with the common volar digital vessels of the superficial volar arch by the inferior perforating arteries.