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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
major; on its lateral side is the Coracobrachialis, and on its medial or thoracic side, the axillary vein. The nerves of the brachial plexus bear the following relations to this part of the artery: on the lateral side are the lateral head and the trunk of the median, and the musculocutaneous for a short distance; on the medial side the ulnar (between the vein and artery) and medial brachial cutaneous (to the medial side of the vein); in front are the medial head of the median and the medial antibrachial cutaneous, and behind, the radial and axillary, the latter only as far as the lower border of the Subscapularis.

Collateral Circulation after Ligature of the Axillary Artery.—If the artery be tied above the origin of the thoracoacromial, the collateral circulation will be carried on by the same branches as after the ligature of the third part of the subclavian; if at a lower point, between the thoracoacromial and the subscapular, the latter vessel, by its free anastomosis with the transverse scapular and transverse cervical branches of the subclavian, will become the chief agent in carrying on the circulation; the lateral thoracic, if it be below the ligature, will materially contribute by its anastomoses with the intercostal and internal mammary arteries. If the point included in the ligature is below the origin of the subscapular artery, it will most probably also be below the origins of the two humeral circumflex arteries. The chief agents in restoring the circulation will then be the subscapular and the two humeral circumflex arteries anastomosing with the a. profunda brachii.


FIG. 523– The axillary artery and its branches. (See enlarged image)


Branches.—The branches of the axillary are:
From first part, Highest Thoracic.        From second part Thoracoacromial.
Lateral Thoracic.

From third part    Subscapular.

   Posterior Humeral Circumflex.

   Anterior Humeral Circumflex.
  1. The highest thoracic artery (a. thoracalis suprema; superior thoracic artery) is a small vessel, which may arise from the thoracoacromial. Running forward and medialward along the upper border of the Pectoralis minor, it passes between it and the Pectoralis major to the side of the chest. It supplies branches to these

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