Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
Ganglionic.The postero-medial ganglionic branches(Fig. 519) are a group of small arteries which arise at the commencement of the posterior cerebral artery: these, with similar branches from the posterior communicating, pierce the posterior perforated substance, and supply the medial surfaces of the thalami and the walls of the third ventricle. The posterior choroidal branches run forward beneath the splenium of the corpus callosum, and supply the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle and the choroid plexus. The postero-lateral ganglionic branches are small arteries which arise from the posterior cerebral artery after it has turned around the cerebral peduncle; they supply a considerable portion of the thalamus.
Cortical.The cortical branches are: the anterior temporal, distributed to the uncus and the anterior part of the fusiform gyrus; the posterior temporal, to the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyri; the calcarine, to the cuneus and gyrus lingualis and the back part of the convex surface of the occipital lobe; and the parietoöccipital, to the cuneus and the precuneus.
2. The thyrocervical trunk (truncus thyreocervicalis; thyroid axis) (Fig. 520) is a short thick trunk, which arises from the front of the first portion of the subclavian artery, close to the medial border of the Scalenus anterior, and divides almost immediately into three branches, the inferior thyroid, transverse scapular, and transverse cervical.
The Inferior Thyroid Artery (a. thyreoidea inferior) passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and Longus colli; then turns medialward behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ganglion resting upon the vessel. Reaching the lower border of the thyroid gland it divides into two branches, which supply the postero-inferior parts of the gland, and anastomose with the superior thyroid, and with the corresponding artery of the opposite side. The recurrent nerve passes upward generally behind, but occasionally in front, of the artery.
The branches of the inferior thyroid are:
The inferior laryngeal artery (a. laryngea inferior) ascends upon the trachea to the back part of the larynx under cover of the Constrictor pharyngis inferior, in company with the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side, and with the superior laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid artery.
The tracheal branches (rami tracheales) are distributed upon the trachea, and anastomose below with the bronchial arteries.
The esophageal branches (rami æsophagei) supply the esophagus, and anastomose with the esophageal branches of the aorta.
The ascending cervical artery (a. cervicalis ascendens) is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid as that vessel is passing behind the carotid sheath; it runs up on the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebræ in the interval between the Scalenus anterior and Longus capitis. To the muscles of the neck it gives twigs which anastomose with branches of the vertebral, and it sends one or two spinal branches into the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina to be distributed to the medulla spinalis and its membranes, and to the bodies of the vertebræ, in the same manner as the spinal branches from the vertebral. It anastomoses with the ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries.
The muscular branches supply the depressors of the hyoid bone, and the Longus colli, Scalenus anterior, and Constrictor pharyngis inferior.