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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 

Branches.—The cervical portion of the internal carotid gives off no branches. Those from the other portions are:


From the Petrous Portion Caroticotympanic.
Artery of the Pterygoid Canal.
From the Cavernous Portion Cavernous.
Hypophyseal.
Semilunar.
Anterior Meningeal.
Ophthalmic.
From the Cerebral Portion Anterior Cerebral.
Middle Cerebral.
Posterior Communicating.
Choroidal.
  1. The caroticotympanic branch (ramus caroticotympanicus; tympanic branch) is small; it enters the tympanic cavity through a minute foramen in the carotid canal, and anastomoses with the anterior tympanic branch of the internal maxillary, and with the stylomastoid artery.
  2. The artery of the pterygoid canal (a. canilis pterygoidei [Vidii]; Vidian artery) is a small, inconstant branch which passes into the pterygoid canal and anastomoses with a branch of the internal maxillary artery.
  3. The cavernous branches are numerous small vessels which supply the hypophysis, the semilunar ganglion, and the walls of the cavernous and inferior petrosal sinuses. Some of them anastomose with branches of the middle meningeal.
  4. The hypophyseal branches are one or two minute vessels supplying the hypophysis.
  5. The semilunar branches are small vessels to the semilunar ganglion.
  6. The anterior meningeal branch (a. meningea anterior) is a small branch which passes over the small wing of the sphenoid to supply the dura mater of the anterior cranial fossa; it anastomoses with the meningeal branch from the posterior ethmoidal artery.
  7. The ophthalmic artery (a. ophthalmica) (Fig. 514) arises from the internal carotid, just as that vessel is emerging from the cavernous sinus, on the medial side of the anterior clinoid process, and enters the orbital cavity through the optic foramen, below and lateral to the optic nerve. It then passes over the nerve to reach the medial wall of the orbit, and thence horizontally forward, beneath the lower border of the Obliquus superior, and divides it into two terminal branches, the frontal and dorsal nasal. As the artery crosses the optic nerve it is accompanied by the nasociliary nerve, and is separated from the frontal nerve by the Rectus superior and Levator palpebræ superioris.

Branches.—The branches of the ophthalmic artery may be divided into an orbital group, distributed to the orbit and surrounding parts; and an ocular group, to the muscles and bulb of the eye.
Orbital Group.
Ocular Group.
Lacrimal.
Central Artery of the Retina.
Supraorbital.
Short Posterior Ciliary.
Posterior Ethmoidal.
Long Posterior Ciliary.
Anterior Ethmoidal.
Anterior Ciliary.
Medial Palpebral.
Muscular.
Frontal.

Dorsal Nasal.


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