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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
cranium. The branches of the middle meningeal artery are distributed partly to the dura mater, but chiefly to the bones; they anastomose with the arteries of the opposite side, and with the anterior and posterior meningeal.
  The middle meningeal on entering the cranium gives off the following branches: (1) Numerous small vessels supply the semilunar ganglion and the dura mater in this situation. (2) A superficial petrosal branch enters the hiatus of the facial canal, supplies the facial nerve, and anastomoses with the stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular artery. (3) A superior tympanic artery runs in the canal for the Tensor tympani, and supplies this muscle and the lining membrane of the canal. (4) Orbital branches pass through the superior orbital fissure or through separate canals in the great wing of the sphenoid, to anastomose with the lacrimal or other branches of the ophthalmic artery. (5) Temporal branches pass through foramina in the great wing of the sphenoid, and anastomose in the temporal fossa with the deep temporal arteries.
  The Accessory Meningeal Branch (ramus meningeus accessorius; small meningeal or parvidural branch) is sometimes derived from the preceding. It enters the skull through the foramen ovale, and supplies the semilunar ganglion and dura mater.
  The Inferior Alveolar Artery (a. alveolaris inferior; inferior dental artery) descends with the inferior alveolar nerve to the mandibular foramen on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible. It runs along the mandibular canal in the substance of the bone, accompanied by the nerve, and opposite the first premolar tooth divides into two branches, incisor and mental. The incisor branch is continued forward beneath the incisor teeth as far as the middle line, where it anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side; the mental branch escapes with the nerve at the mental foramen, supplies the chin, and anastomoses with the submental and inferior labial arteries. Near its origin the inferior alveolar artery gives off a lingual branch which descends with the lingual nerve and supplies the mucous membrane of the mouth. As the inferior alveolar artery enters the foramen, it gives off a mylohyoid branch which runs in the mylohyoid groove, and ramifies on the under surface of the Mylohyoideus. The inferior alveolar artery and its incisor branch during their course through the substance of the bone give off a few twigs which are lost in the cancellous tissue, and a series of branches which correspond in number to the roots of the teeth: these enter the minute apertures at the extremities of the roots, and supply the pulp of the teeth.

Branches of the Second or Pterygoid Portion.
Deep Temporal.
Masseteric.
Pterygoid.
Buccinator.
  The Deep Temporal Branches, two in number, anterior and posterior, ascend between the Temporalis and the pericranium; they supply the muscle, and anastomose with the middle temporal artery; the anterior communicates with the lacrimal artery by means of small branches which perforate the zygomatic bone and great wing of the sphenoid.
  The Pterygoid Branches (rami pterygoidei), irregular in their number and origin, supply the Pterygoidei.
  The Masseteric Artery (a. masseterica) is small and passes lateralward through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the Masseter. It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the transverse facial artery.
  The Buccinator Artery (a. buccinatoria; buccal artery) is small and runs obliquely forward, between the Pterygoideus internus and the insertion of the Temporalis, to the outer surface of the Buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the external maxillary and with the infraorbital.

Branches of the Third or Pterygopalatine Portion.
Posterior Superior Alveolar.
Artery of the Pterygoid Canal.
Infraorbital.
Pharyngeal.
Descending Palatine.
Sphenopalatine.

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