Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
The Ascending Palatine Artery (a. palatina ascendens) (Fig. 513)arises close to the origin of the external maxillary artery and passes up between the Styloglossus and Stylopharyngeus to the side of the pharynx, along which it is continued between the Constrictor pharyngis superior and the Pterygoideus internus to near the base of the skull. It divides near the Levator veli palatini into two branches: one follows the course of this muscle, and, winding over the upper border of the Constrictor pharyngis superior, supplies the soft palate and the palatine glands, anastomosing with its fellow of the opposite side and with the descending palatine branch of the internal maxillary artery; the other pierces the Constrictor pharyngis superior and supplies the palatine tonsil and auditory tube, anastomosing with the tonsillar and ascending pharyngeal arteries.
The Tonsillar Branch (ramus tonsillaris) (Fig. 513) ascends between the Pterygoideus internus and Styloglossus, and then along the side of the pharynx, perforating the Constrictor pharyngis superior, to ramify in the substance of the palatine tonsil and root of the tongue.
The Glandular Branches (rami glandulares; submaxillary branches) consist of three or four large vessels, which supply the submaxillary gland, some being prolonged to the neighboring muscles, lymph glands, and integument.
The Submental Artery (a. submentalis) the largest of the cervical branches, is given off from the facial artery just as that vessel quits the submaxillary gland: it runs forward upon the Mylohyoideus, just below the body of the mandible, and beneath the Digastricus. It supplies the surrounding muscles, and anastomoses with the sublingual artery and with the mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar; at the symphysis menti it turns upward over the border of the mandible and divides into a superficial and a deep branch. The superficial branch passes between the integument and Quadratus labii inferioris, and anastomoses with the inferior labial artery; the deep branch runs between the muscle and the bone, supplies the lip, and anastomoses with the inferior labial and mental arteries.
FIG. 509 The labial coronary arteries, the glands of the lips, and the nerves of the right side seen from the posterior surface after removal of the mucous membrane. (Poirier and Charpy.) (See enlarged image)
The Inferior Labial Artery (a. labialis inferior; inferior coronary artery) arises near the angle of the mouth; it passes upward and forward beneath the Triangularis and, penetrating the Orbicularis oris, runs in a tortuous course along the edge of the lower lip between this muscle and the mucous membrane. It supplies the labial glands, the mucous membrane, and the muscles of the lower lip; and anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side, and with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery.
The Superior Labial Artery (a. labialis superior; superior coronary artery) is larger and more tortuous than the inferior. It follows a similar course along the edge of the upper lip, lying between the mucous membrane and the Orbicularis oris, and anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side. It supplies the upper lip,