Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
of the tube forms the medulla spinalis or spinal cord; from its ectodermal wall the nervous and neuroglial elements of the medulla spinalis are developed while the cavity persists as the central canal.
7. The Notochord
The notochord (Fig. 19) consists of a rod of cells situated on the ventral aspect of the neural tube; it constitutes the foundation of the axial skeleton, since around it the segments of the vertebral column are formed. Its appearance synchronizes with that of the neural tube. On the ventral aspect of the neural groove an axial thickening of the entoderm takes place; this thickening assumes the appearance of a furrowthe chordal furrowthe margins of which come into contact, and so convert it into a solid rod of cellsthe notochordwhich is then separated from the entoderm. It extends throughout the entire length of the future vertebral column, and reaches as far as the anterior end of the mid-brain, where it ends in a hook-like extremity in the region of the future dorsum sellæ of the sphenoid bone. It lies at first between the neural tube and the entoderm of the yolk-sac, but soon becomes separated from them by the mesoderm, which grows medial-ward and surrounds it. From the mesoderm surrounding the neural tube and notochord, the skull and vertebral column, and the membranes of the brain and medulla spinalis are developed.
FIG. 19 Transverse section of a chick embryo of forty-five hours incubation. (Balfour.) (See enlarged image)
8. The Primitive Segments
Toward the end of the second week transverse segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm begins, and it is converted into a series of well-defined, more or less cubical masses, the primitive segments (Figs. 18,19,20), which occupy the entire length of the trunk on either side of the middle line from the occipital region of the head. Each segment contains a central cavitymyoclwhich, however, is soon filled with angular and spindle-shaped cells.
FIG. 20 Dorsum of human embryo, 2.11 mm. in length. (After Eternod.) (See enlarged image)
The primitive segments lie immediately under the ectoderm on the lateral aspect of the neural tube and notochord, and are connected to the lateral mesoderm by the intermediate cell-mass. Those of the trunk may