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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
by a thin layer of fascia. It arises by a narrow tendon, from the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, and from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles. It passes forward, and divides into four tendons, one for each of the four lesser toes. Opposite the bases of the first phalanges, each tendon divides into two slips, to allow of the passage of the corresponding tendon of the Flexor digitorum longus; the two portions of the tendon then unite and form a grooved channel for the reception of the accompanying long Flexor tendon. Finally, it divides a second time, and is inserted into the sides of the second phalanx about its middle. The mode of division of the tendons of the Flexor digitorum brevis, and of their insertion into the phalanges, is analogous to that of the tendons of the Flexor digitorum sublimis in the hand.

Variations.—Slip to the little toe frequently wanting, 23 per cent.; or it may be replaced by a small fusiform muscle arising from the long flexor tendon or from the Quadratus plantæ.

Fibrous Sheaths of the Flexor Tendons.—The terminal portions of the tendons of the long and short Flexor muscles are contained in osseoaponeurotic canals similar in their arrangement to those in the fingers. These canals are formed above by the phalanges and below by fibrous bands, which arch across the tendons, and are attached on either side to the margins of the phalanges. Opposite the bodies of the proximal and second phalanges the fibrous bands are strong, and the fibers are transverse; but opposite the joints they are much thinner, and the fibers are directed obliquely. Each canal contains a mucous sheath, which is reflected on the contained tendons.


FIG. 443– Muscles of the sole of the foot. First layer. (See enlarged image)

  The Abductor digiti quinti (Abductor minimi digiti) lies along the lateral border of the foot, and is in relation by its medial margin with the lateral plantar vessels and nerves. It arises, by a broad origin, from the lateral process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the under surface of the calcaneus between the two processes of the tuberosity, from the forepart of the medial process, from the plantar aponeurosis, and from the intermuscular septum between it and the Flexor digitorum brevis. Its tendon, after gliding over a smooth facet on the under surface of the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, is inserted, with the Flexor digiti quinti brevis, into the fibular side of the base of the first phalanx of the fifth toe.

Variations.—Slips of origin from the tuberosity at the base of the fifth metatarsal. Abductor ossis metatarsi quinti, origin external tubercle of the calcaneus, insertion into tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone in common with or beneath the outer margin of the plantar fascia.

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