Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
the anterior tibial vessels pass forward to the front of the leg. It arises from the whole of the posterior surface of the interosseous membrane, excepting its lowest part; from the lateral portion of the posterior surface of the body of the tibia, between the commencement of the popliteal line above and the junction of the middle and lower thirds of the body below; and from the upper two-thirds of the medial surface of the fibula; some fibers also arise from the deep transverse fascia, and from the intermuscular septa separating it from the adjacent muscles. In the lower fourth of the leg its tendon passes in front of that of the Flexor digitorum longus and lies with it in a groove behind the medial malleolus, but enclosed in a separate sheath; it next passes under the laciniate and over the deltoid ligament into the foot, and then beneath the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament. The tendon contains a sesamoid fibrocartilage, as it runs under the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament. It is inserted into the tuberosity of the navicular bone, and gives off fibrous expansions, one of which passes backward to the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus, others forward and lateralward to the three cuneiforms, the cuboid, and the bases of the second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones.
Nerves.The Popliteus is supplied by the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves, the Flexor digitorum longus and Tibialis posterior by the fifth lumbar and first sacral, and the Flexor hallucis longus by the fifth lumbar and the first and second sacral nerves, through the tibial nerve.
Actions.The Popliteus assists in flexing the leg upon the thigh; when the leg is flexed, it will rotate the tibia inward. It is especially called into action at the beginning of the act of bending the knee, inasmuch as it produces the slight inward rotation of the tibia which is essential in the early stage of this movement. The Tibialis posterior is a direct extensor of the foot at the ankle-joint; acting in conjunction with the Tibialis anterior, it turns the sole of the foot upward and medialward, i.e., inverts the foot, antagonizing the Peronæi, which turn it upward and lateralward (evert it). In the sole of the foot the tendon of the Tibialis posterior lies directly below the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, and is therefore an important factor in maintaining the arch of the foot. The Flexor digitorum longus and Flexor hallucis longus are the direct flexors of the phalanges, and, continuing their action, extend the foot upon the leg; they assist the Gastrocnemius and Soleus in extending the foot, as in the act of walking, or in standing on tiptoe. In consequence of the oblique direction of its tendons the Flexor digitorum longus would draw the toes medialward, were it not for the Quadratus plantæ, which is inserted into the lateral side of the tendon, and draws it to the middle line of the foot. Taking their fixed point from the foot, these muscles serve to maintain the upright posture by steadying the tibia and fibula perpendicularly upon the talus.
The Peronæus longus is situated at the upper part of the lateral side of the leg, and is the more superficial of the two muscles. It arises from the head and upper two-thirds of the lateral surface of the body of the fibula, from the deep surface of the fascia, and from the intermuscular septa between it and the muscles on the front and back of the leg; occasionally also by a few fibers from the lateral condyle of the tibia. Between its attachments to the head and to the body of the fibula there is a gap through which the common peroneal nerve passes to the front of the leg. It ends in a long tendon, which runs behind the lateral malleolus, in a groove common to it and the tendon of the Peronæus brevis, behind which it lies; the groove is converted into a canal by the superior peroneal retinaculum, and the tendons in it are contained in a common mucous sheath. The tendon then extends obliquely forward across the lateral side of the calcaneus, below the trochlear process, and the tendon of the Peronæus brevis, and under cover of the inferior peroneal retinaculum. It crosses the lateral side of the cuboid, and then runs on the under surface of that bone in a groove which is converted into a canal by the long plantar ligament; the tendon then crosses the sole of the foot obliquely, and is inserted into the lateral side of the base of the first metatarsal bone and the lateral