Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
first phalanx: this aponeurosis, at the articulation of the first with the second phalanx, divides into three slipsan intermediate, which is inserted into the base of the second phalanx; and two collateral slips, which, after uniting on the dorsal surface of the second phalanx, are continued onward, to be inserted into the base of the third phalanx.
Variations.This muscle varies considerably in the modes of origin and the arrangement of its various tendons. The tendons to the second and fifth toes may be found doubled, or extra slips are given off from one or more tendons to their corresponding metatarsal bones, or to the short extensor, or to one of the interosseous muscles. A slip to the great toe from the innermost tendon has been found.
The Peronæus tertius is a part of the Extensor digitorum longus, and might be described as its fifth tendon. The fibers belonging to this tendon arise from the lower third or more of the anterior surface of the fibula; from the lower part of the interosseous membrane; and from an intermuscular septum between it and the Peronæus brevis. The tendon, after passing under the transverse and cruciate crural ligaments in the same canal as the Extensor digitorum longus, is inserted into the dorsal surface of the base of the metatarsal bone of the little toe. This muscle is sometimes wanting.
Nerves.These muscles are supplied by the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves through the deep peroneal nerve.
Actions.The Tibialis anterior and Peronæus tertius are the direct flexors of the foot at the ankle-joint; the former muscle, when acting in conjunction with the Tibialis posterior, raises the medial border of the foot, i. e., inverts the foot; and the latter, acting with the Peronæi brevis and longus, raises the lateral border of the foot, i. e., everts the foot. The Extensor digitorum longus and Extensor hallucis longus extend the phalanges of the toes, and, continuing their action, flex the foot upon the leg. Taking their fixed points from below, in the erect posture, all these muscles serve to fix the bones of the leg in the perpendicular position, and give increased strength to the ankle-joint.
2. The Posterior Crural Muscles
The muscles of the back of the leg are subdivided into two groupssuperficial and deep. Those of the superficial group constitute a powerful muscular mass, forming the calf of the leg. Their large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular apparatus in man, and bears a direct relation to his erect attitude and his mode of progression.
The Gastrocnemius is the most superficial muscle, and forms the greater part of the calf. It arises by two heads, which are connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. The medial and larger head takes its origin from a depression at the upper and back part of the medial condyle and from the adjacent part of the femur. The lateral headarises from an impression on the side of the lateral condyle and from the posterior surface of the femur immediately above the lateral part of the condyle. Both heads, also, arise from the subjacent part of the capsule of the knee. Each tendon spreads out into an aponeurosis, which covers the posterior surface of that portion of the muscle to which it belongs. From the anterior surfaces of these tendinous expansions, muscular fibers are given off; those of the medial head being thicker and extending lower than those of the lateral. The fibers unite at an angle in the middle line of the muscle in a tendinous raphé, which expands into a broad aponeurosis on the anterior surface of the muscle, and into this the remaining fibers are inserted. The aponeurosis, gradually contracting, unites with the tendon of the Soleus, and forms with it the tendo calcaneus.