Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
Nerves.The muscles of this region are supplied by the fourth and fifth lumbar and the first, second, and third sacral nerves; the nerve to the short head of the Biceps femoris is derived from the common peroneal, the other muscles are supplied through the tibial nerve.
Actions.The hamstring muscles flex the leg upon the thigh. When the knee is semiflexed, the Biceps femoris in consequence of its oblique direction rotates the leg slightly outward; and the Semitendinosus, and to a slight extent the Semimembranosus, rotate the leg inward, assisting the Popliteus. Taking their fixed point from below, these muscles serve to support the pelvis upon the head of the femur, and to draw the trunk directly backward, as in raising it from the stooping position or in feats of strength, when the body is thrown backward in the form of an arch. As already indicated on page 285, complete flexion of the hip cannot be effected unless the knee-joint is also flexed, on account of the shortness of the hamstring muscles.
8c. The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Leg
The muscles of the leg may be divided into three groups: anterior, posterior, and lateral.
Deep Fascia (fascia cruris).The deep fascia of the leg forms a complete investment to the muscles, and is fused with the periosteum over the subcutaneous surfaces of the bones. It is continuous above with the fascia lata, and is attached around the knee to the patella, the ligamentum patellæ, the tuberosity and condyles of the tibia, and the head of the tibula. Behind, it forms the popliteal fascia, covering in the popliteal fossa; here it is strengthened by transverse fibers, and perforated by the small saphenous vein. It receives an expansion from the tendon of the Biceps femoris laterally, and from the tendons of the Sartorius, Gracilis, Semitendinosus, and Semimembranosus medially; in front, it blends with the periosteum covering the subcutaneous surface of the tibia, and with that covering the head and malleolus of the fibula; below, it is continuous with the transverse crural and laciniate ligaments. It is thick and dense in the upper and anterior part of the leg, and gives attachment, by its deep surface, to the Tibialis anterior and Extensor digitorum longus; but thinner behind, where it covers the Gastrocnemius and Soleus. It gives off from its deep surface, on the lateral side of the leg, two strong intermuscular septa, the anterior and posterior peroneal septa, which enclose the Peronæi longus and brevis, and separate them from the muscles of the anterior and posterior crural regions, and several more slender processes which enclose the individual muscles in each region. A broad transverse intermuscular septum, called the deep transverse fascia of the leg, intervenes between the superficial and deep posterior crural muscles.
The Tibialis anterior (Tibialis anticus) is situated on the lateral side of the tibia; it is thick and fleshy above, tendinous below. It arises from the lateral condyle and upper half or two-thirds of the lateral surface of the body of the tibia; from the adjoining part of the interosseous membrane; from the deep surface of the fascia; and from the intermuscular septum between it and the Extensor digitorum longus. The fibers run vertically downward, and end in a tendon, which is apparent on the anterior surface of the muscle at the lower third of the leg. After passing through the most medial compartments of the transverse and cruciate crural ligaments, it is inserted into the medial and under surface of the first cuneiform bone, and the base of the first metatarsal bone. This muscle overlaps the anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve in the upper part of the leg.
Variations.A deep portion of the muscle is rarely inserted into the talus, or a tendinous slip may pass to the head of the first metatarsal bone or the base of the first phalanx of the great toe. The Tibiofascialis anterior, a small muscle from the lower part of the tibia to the transverse or cruciate crural ligaments or deep fascia.