Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
The Extensor carpi radialis longus (Extensor carpi radialis longior) is placed partly beneath the Brachioradialis. It arises from the lower third of the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus, from the lateral intermuscular septum, and by a few fibers from the common tendon of origin of the Extensor muscles of the forearm. The fibers end at the upper third of the forearm in a flat tendon, which runs along the lateral border of the radius, beneath the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis; it then passes beneath the dorsal carpal ligament, where it lies in a groove on the back of the radius common to it and the Extensor carpi radialis brevis, immediately behind the styloid process. It is inserted into the dorsal surface of the base of the second metacarpal bone, on its radial side.
The Extensor carpi radialis brevis (Extensor carpi radialis brevior) is shorter and thicker than the preceding muscle, beneath which it is placed. It arises from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, by a tendon common to it and the three following muscles; from the radial collateral ligament of the elbow-joint; from a strong aponeurosis which covers its surface; and from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles. The fibers end about the middle of the forearm in a flat tendon, which is closely connected with that of the preceding muscle, and accompanies it to the wrist; it passes beneath the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis, then beneath the dorsal carpal ligament, and is inserted into the dorsal surface of the base of the third metacarpal bone on its radial side. Under the dorsal carpal ligament the tendon lies on the back of the radius in a shallow groove, to the ulnar side of that which lodges the tendon of the Extensor carpi radialis, longus, and separated from it by a faint ridge.
The tendons of the two preceding muscles pass through the same compartment of the dorsal carpal ligament in a single mucous sheath.
Variations.Either muscle may split into two or three tendons of insertion to the second and third or even the fourth metacarpal. The two muscles may unite into a single belly with two tendons. Cross slips between the two muscles may occur. The Extensor carpi radialis intermedius rarely arises as a distinct muscle from the humerus, but is not uncommon as an accessory slip from one or both muscles to the second or third or both metacarpals. The Extensor carpi radialis accessorius is occasionally found arising from the humerus with or below the Extensor carpi radialis longus and inserted into the first metacarpal, the Abductor pollicis brevis, the First dorsal interosseous, or elsewhere.
The Extensor digitorum communisarises from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, by the common tendon; from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles, and from the antibrachial fascia. It divides below into four tendons, which pass, together with that of the Extensor indicis proprius, through a separate compartment of the dorsal carpal ligament, within a mucous sheath. The tendons then diverge on the back of the hand, and are inserted into the second and third phalanges of the fingers in the following manner. Opposite the metacarpophalangeal articulation each tendon is bound by fasciculi to the collateral ligaments and serves as the dorsal ligament of this joint; after having crossed the joint, it spreads out into a broad aponeurosis, which covers the dorsal surface of the first phalanx and is reinforced, in this situation, by the tendons of the Interossei and Lumbricalis. Opposite the first interphalangeal joint this aponeurosis divides into three slips; an intermediate and two collateral: the former is inserted into the base of the second phalanx; and the two collateral, which are continued onward along the sides of the second phalanx, unite by their contiguous margins, and are inserted into the dorsal surface of the last phalanx. As the tendons cross the interphalangeal joints, they furnish them with dorsal ligaments. The tendon to the index finger is accompanied by the Extensor indicis proprius, which lies on its ulnar side. On the back of the hand, the tendons to the middle, ring, and little fingers are connected by two obliquely placed bands, one from the third tendon passing downward and lateralward to the second tendon, and the other