Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
and slightly downward, to be inserted into the lower fourth of the lateral border and the volar surface of the body of the radius. The deeper fibers of the muscle are inserted into the triangular area above the ulnar notch of the radiusan attachment comparable with the origin of the Supinator from the triangular area below the radial notch of the ulna.
Variations.Rarely absent; split into two or three layers; increased attachment upward or downward.
Nerves.All the muscles of the superficial layer are supplied by the median nerve, excepting the Flexor carpi ulnaris, which is supplied by the ulnar. The Pronator teres, the Flexor carpi radialis, and the Palmaris longus derive their supply primarily from the sixth cervical nerve; the Flexor digitorum sublimis from the seventh and eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and the Flexor carpi ulnaris from the eighth cervical and first thoracic. Of the deep layer, the Flexor digitorum profundus is supplied by the eighth cervical and first thoracic through the ulnar, and the volar interosseous branch of the median. The Flexor pollicis longus and Pronator quadratus are supplied by the eighth cervical and first thoracic through the volar interosseous branch of the median.
Actions.These muscles act upon the forearm, the wrist, and hand. The Pronator teres rotates the radius upon the ulna, rendering the hand prone; when the radius is fixed, it assists in flexing the forearm. The Flexor carpi radialis is a flexor and abductor of the wrist; it also assists in pronating the hand, and in bending the elbow. The Flexor carpi ulnaris is a flexor and adductor of the wrist; it also assists in bending the elbow. The Palmaris longus is a flexor of the wrist-joint; it also assists in flexing the elbow. The Flexor digitorum sublimis flexes first the middle and then the proximal phalanges; it also assists in flexing the wrist and elbow. The Flexor digitorum profundus is one of the flexors of the phalanges. After the Flexor sublimis has bent the second phalanx, the Flexor profundus flexes the terminal one; but it cannot do so until after the contraction of the superficial muscle. It also assists in flexing the wrist. The