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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 

The Superficial Group (Fig. 414).
Pronator teres.
Palmaris longus.
Flexor carpi radialis.
Flexor carpi ulnaris.
Flexor digitorum sublimis.
  The muscles of this group take origin from the medial epicondyle of the humerus by a common tendon; they receive additional fibers from the deep fascia of the forearm near the elbow, and from the septa which pass from this fascia between the individual muscles.
  The Pronator teres has two heads of origin—humeral and ulnar. The humeral head, the larger and more superficial, arises immediately above the medial epicondyle, and from the tendon common to the origin of the other muscles; also from the intermuscular septum between it and the Flexor carpi radialis and from the antibrachial fascia. The ulnar head is a thin fasciculus, which arises from the medial side of the coronoid process of the ulna, and joins the preceding at an acute angle. The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar head. The muscle passes obliquely across the forearm, and ends in a flat tendon, which is inserted into a rough impression at the middle of the lateral surface of the body of the radius. The lateral border of the muscle forms the medial boundary of a triangular hollow situated in front of the elbow-joint and containing the brachial artery, median nerve, and tendon of the Biceps brachii.

Variations.—Absence of ulnar head; additional slips from the medial intermuscular septum, from the Biceps and from the Brachialis anticus occasionally occur.
  The Flexor carpi radialis lies on the medial side of the preceding muscle. It arises from the medial epicondyle by the common tendon; from the fascia of the forearm; and from the intermuscular septa between it and the Pronator teres laterally, the Palmaris longus medially, and the Flexor digitorum sublimis beneath. Slender and aponeurotic in structure at its commencement, it increases in size, and ends in a tendon which forms rather more than the lower half of its length. This tendon passes through a canal in the lateral part of the transverse carpal ligament and runs through a groove on the greater multangular bone; the groove is converted into a canal by fibrous tissue, and lined by a mucous sheath. The tendon is inserted into the base of the second metacarpal bone, and sends a slip to the base of the third metacarpal bone. The radial artery, in the lower part of the forearm, lies between the tendon of this muscle and the Brachioradialis.

Variations.—Slips from the tendon of the Biceps, the lacertus fibrosus, the coronoid, and the radius have been found. Its insertion often varies and may be mostly into the annular ligament, the trapezium, or the fourth metacarpal as well as the second or third. The muscle may be absent.
  The Palmaris longus is a slender, fusiform muscle, lying on the medial side of the preceding. It arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus by the common tendon, from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles, and from the antibrachial fascia. It ends in a slender, flattened tendon, which passes over the upper part of the transverse carpal ligament, and is inserted into the central part of the transverse carpal ligament and lower part of the palmar aponeurosis, frequently sending a tendinous slip to the short muscles of the thumb.

Variations.—One of the most variable muscles in the body. This muscle is often absent about (10 per cent.), and is subject to many variations; it may be tendinous above and muscular below; or it may be muscular in the center with a tendon above and below; or it may present two muscular bundles with a central tendon; or finally it may consist solely of a tendinous band. The muscle may be double. Slips of origin from the coronoid process or from the radius have been seen

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