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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
of which is inserted as above described; the other passes down to the second rib below its origin (Levatores costarum longi).
  The Serratus posterior superior (Serratus posticus superior) is a thin, quadrilateral muscle, situated at the upper and back part of the thorax. It arises by a thin and broad aponeurosis from the lower part of the ligamentum nuchae, from the spinous processes of the seventh cervical and upper two or three thoracic vertebræ and from the supraspinal ligament. Inclining downward and lateralward it becomes muscular, and is inserted, by four fleshy digitations, into the upper borders of the second, third, fourth, and fifth ribs, a little beyond their angles.

Variations.—Increase or decrease in size and number of slips or entire absence.
  The Serratus posterior inferior (Serratus posticus inferior) (Fig. 409) is situated at the junction of the thoracic and lumbar regions: it is of an irregularly quadrilateral form, broader than the preceding, and separated from it by a wide interval. It arises by a thin aponeurosis from the spinous processes of the lower two thoracic and upper two or three lumbar vertebræ, and from the supraspinal ligament. Passing obliquely upward and lateralward, it becomes fleshy, and divides into four flat digitations, which are inserted into the inferior borders of the lower four ribs, a little beyond their angles. The thin aponeurosis of origin is intimately blended with the lumbodorsal fascia, and aponeurosis of the Latissimus dorsi.


FIG. 390– Posterior surface of sternum and costal cartilages, showing Transversus thoracis. (See enlarged image)


Variations.—Increase or decrease in size and number of slips or entire absence.

Nerves.—The muscles of this group are supplied by the intercostal nerves.
  The Diaphragm (Fig. 391) is a dome-shaped musculofibrous septum which separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity, its convex upper surface forming the floor of the former, and its concave under surface the roof of the latter. Its peripheral part consists of muscular fibers which take origin from the circumference of the thoracic outlet and converge to be inserted into a central tendon.
  The muscular fibers may be grouped according to their origins into three parts—sternal, costal, and lumbar. The sternal part arises by two fleshy slips from the back of the xiphoid process; the costal part from the inner surfaces of the cartilages and adjacent portions of the lower six ribs on either side, interdigitating with the Transversus abdominis; and the lumbar part from aponeurotic arches, named the lumbocostal arches, and from the lumbar vertebræ by two pillars or crura. There are two lumbocostal arches, a medial and a lateral, on either side.
  The Medial Lumbocostal Arch (arcus lumbocostalis medialis [Halleri]; internal arcuate ligament) is a tendinous arch in the fascia covering the upper part of the Psoas major; medially, it is continuous with the lateral tendinous margin of the corresponding crus, and is attached to the side of the body of the first or second

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