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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
  The medial palpebral ligament (tendo oculi), about 4 mm. in length and 2 mm. in breadth, is attached to the frontal process of the maxilla in front of the lacrimal groove. Crossing the lacrimal sac, it divides into two parts, upper and lower, each attached to the medial end of the corresponding tarsus. As the ligament crosses the lacrimal sac, a strong aponeurotic lamina is given off from its posterior surface; this expands over the sac, and is attached to the posterior lacrimal crest.
  The lateral palpebral raphé is a much weaker structure than the medial palpebral ligament. It is attached to the margin of the frontosphenoidal process of the zygomatic bone, and passes medialward to the lateral commissure of the eyelids, where it divides into two slips, which are attached to the margins of the respective tarsi.


FIG. 379– Left orbicularis oculi, seen from behind. (See enlarged image)

  The Corrugator  1 (Corrugator supercilii) is a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle, placed at the medial end of the eyebrow, beneath the Frontalis and Orbicularis oculi. It arises from the medial end of the superciliary arch; and its fibers pass upward and lateralward, between the palpebral and orbital portions of the Orbicularis oculi, and are inserted into the deep surface of the skin, above the middle of the orbital arch.

Nerves.—The Orbicularis oculi and Corrugator are supplied by the facial nerve.

Actions.—The Orbicularis oculi is the sphincter muscle of the eyelids. The palpebral portion acts involuntarily, closing the lids gently, as in sleep or in blinking; the orbital portion is subject to the will. When the entire muscle is brought into action, the skin of the forehead, temple, and cheek is drawn toward the medial angle of the orbit, and the eyelids are firmly closed, as in photophobia. The skin thus drawn upon is thrown into folds, especially radiating from the lateral angle of the eyelids; these folds become permanent in old age, and form the so-called “crows’ feet.” The Levator palpebræ superioris is the direct antagonist of this muscle; it raises the upper eyelid and exposes the front of the bulb of the eye. Each time the eyelids are closed through the action of the Orbicularis, the medial palpebral ligament is tightened, the wall of the lacrimal sac is thus drawn lateralward and forward, so that a vacuum is made in it and the
Note 1.  The corrugator is not recognized as a separate muscle in the Basle Nomenclature. [back]

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