Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
The superficial fascia is found immediately beneath the integument over almost the entire surface of the body. It connects the skin with the deep fascia, and consists of fibroareolar tissue, containing in its meshes pellicles of fat in varying quantity. Fibro-areolar tissue is composed of white fibers and yellow elastic fibers intercrossing in all directions, and united together by a homogeneous cement or ground substance, the matrix.
The cells of areolar tissue are of four principal kinds: (1) Flattened lamellar cells, which may be either branched or unbranched. The branched lamellar cells are composed of clear cytoplasm, and contain oval nuclei; the processes of these cells may unite so as to form an open network, as in the cornea. The unbranched cells are joined edge to edge like the cells of an epithelium; the tendon cells, presently to be described, are examples of this variety. (2) Clasmatocytes, large irregular cells characterized by the presence of granules or vacuoles in their protoplasm, and containing oval nuclei. (3) Granule cells (Mastzellen), which are ovoid or spheroidal in shape. They are formed of a soft protoplasm, containing granules which are basophil in character. (4) Plasma cells of Waldeyer, usually spheroidal and distinguished by containing a vacuolated protoplasm. The vacuoles are filled with fluid, and the protoplasm between the spaces is clear, with occasionally a few scattered basophil granules.
FIG. 377 Subcutaneous tissue from a young rabbit. Highly magnified. (Schäfer.) (See enlarged image)
In addition to these four typical forms of connective-tissue corpuscles, areolar tissue may be seen to possess wandering cells,i.e., leucocytes which have emigrated from the neighboring vessels; in some instances, as in the choroid coat of the eye cells filled with granules of pigment (pigment cells) are found.
The cells lie in spaces in the ground substance between the bundles of fibers, and these spaces may be brought into view by treating the tissue with nitrate of silver and exposing it to the light. This will color the ground substance and leave the cell-spaces unstained.