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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 

Synovial Membranes (Fig. 360).—The synovial membranes between the second and third, and the third and fourth metatarsal bones are part of the great tarsal synovial membrane; that between the fourth and fifth is a prolongation of the synovial membrane of the cuboideometatarsal joint.

Movements.—The movement permitted between the tarsal ends of the metatarsal bones is limited to a slight gliding of the articular surfaces upon one another.
  The heads of all the metatarsal bones are connected together by the transverse metatarsal ligament.

The Transverse Metatarsal Ligament.—The transverse metatarsal ligament is a narrow band which runs across and connects together the heads of all the metatarsal bones; it is blended anteriorly with the plantar (glenoid) ligaments of the metatarsophalangeal articulations. Its plantar surface is concave where the Flexor tendons run below it; above it the tendons of the Interossei pass to their insertions. It differs from the transverse metacarpal ligament in that it connects the metatarsal to the others.

The Synovial Membranes in the Tarsal and Tarsometatarsal Joints (Fig. 360).—The synovial membranes found in the articulations of the tarsus and metatarsus are six in number: one for the talocalcaneal articulation; a second for the talocalcaneonavicular articulation; a third for the calcaneocuboid articulation; and a fourth for the cuneonavicular, intercuneiform, and cuneo-cuboid articulations, the articulations of the second and third cuneiforms with the bases of the second and third metatarsal bones, and the adjacent surfaces of the bases of the second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones; a fifth for the first cuneiform with the metatarsal bone of the great toe; and a sixth for the articulation of the cuboid with the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. A small synovial cavity is sometimes found between the contiguous surfaces of the navicular and cuboid bones.
 
7h. Metatarsophalangeal Articulations
 
  
(Articulationes Metatarsophalangeæ)


The metatarsophalangeal articulations are of the condyloid kind, formed by the reception of the rounded heads of the metatarsal bones in shallow cavities on the ends of the first phalanges.
  The ligaments are the plantar and two collateral.

The Plantar Ligaments (ligamenta accessoria plantaria; glenoid ligaments of Cruveilhier).—The plantar ligaments are thick, dense, fibrous structures. They are placed on the plantar surfaces of the joints in the intervals between the collateral ligaments, to which they are connected; they are loosely united to the metatarsal bones, but very firmly to the bases of the first phalanges. Their plantar surfaces are intimately blended with the transverse metatarsal ligament, and grooved for the passage of the Flexor tendons, the sheaths surrounding which are connected to the sides of the grooves. Their deep surfaces form part of the articular facets for the heads of the metatarsal bones, and are lined by synovial membrane.

The Collateral Ligaments (ligamenta collateralia; lateral ligaments).—The collateral ligaments are strong, rounded cords, placed one on either side of each joint, and attached, by one end, to the posterior tubercle on the side of the head of the metatarsal bone, and, by the other, to the contiguous extremity of the phalanx.
  The place of dorsal ligaments is supplied by the Extensor tendons on the dorsal surfaces of the joints.

Movements.—The movements permitted in the metatarsophalangeal articulations are flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.
 
7i. Articulations of the Digits
 
  
(Articulationes Digitorum Pedis; Articulations of the Phalanges)


The interphalangeal articulations are ginglymoid joints, and each has a plantar and two collateral ligaments.
  The arrangement of these ligaments is similar to that in the metatarsophalangeal articulations: the Extensor tendons supply the places of dorsal ligaments.

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