Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
flattened fibers, which cross the acetabular notch, and convert it into a foramen through which the nutrient vessels enter the joint.
Synovial Membrane (Fig. 343).The synovial membrane is very extensive. Commencing at the margin of the cartilaginous surface of the head of the femur, it covers the portion of the neck which is contained within the joint; from the neck it is reflected on the internal surface of the capsule, covers both surfaces of the glenoidal labrum and the mass of fat contained in the depression at the bottom of the acetabulum, and ensheathes the ligamentum teres as far as the head of the femur. The joint cavity sometimes communicates through a hole in the capsule between the vertical band of the iliofemoral ligament and the pubocapsular ligament with a bursa situated on the deep surfaces of the Psoas major and Iliacus.
The muscles in relation with the joint are, in front, the Psoas major and Iliacus, separated from the capsule by a bursa; above, the reflected head of the Rectus femoris and Glutæus minimus, the latter being closely adherent to the capsule; medially, the Obturator externus and Pectineus; behind, the Piriformis, Gemellus superior, Obturator internus, Gemellus inferior, Obturator externus, and Quadratus femoris (Fig. 344).
The arteries supplying the joint are derived from the obturator, medial femoral circumflex, and superior and inferior gluteals.
The nerves are articular branches from the sacral plexus, sciatic, obturator, accessory obturator, and a filament from the branch of the femoral supplying the Rectus femoris.
Movements.The movements of the hip are very extensive, and consist of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, and rotation.
The length of the neck of the femur and its inclinations to the body of the bone have the effect of converting the angular movements of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction partially into rotatory movements in the joint. Thus when the thigh is flexed or extended, the head of the femur, on account of the medial inclination of the neck, rotates within the acetabulum with only a slight amount of gliding to and fro. The forward slope of the neck similarly affects the movements of adduction and abduction. Conversely rotation of the thigh which is permitted by the upward inclination of the neck, is not a simple rotation of the head of the femur in the acetabulum, but is accompanied by a certain amount of gliding.