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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 

The Articular Capsule (capsula articularis; capsular ligament).—The articular capsule is a thin membrane attached to the circumferences of the articular surfaces, and lined by a synovial membrane.


FIG. 313– Costotransverse articulation. Seen from above. (See enlarged image)


The Anterior Costotransverse Ligament (ligamentum costotransversarium anterius; anterior superior ligament).—The anterior costotransverse ligament is attached below to the sharp crest on the upper border of the neck of the rib, and passes obliquely upward and lateralward to the lower border of the transverse process immediately above. It is in relation, in front, with the intercostal vessels and nerves; its medial border is thickened and free, and bounds an aperture which transmits the posterior branches of the intercostal vessels and nerves; its lateral border is continuous with a thin aponeurosis, which covers the Intercostalis externus.
  The first rib has no anterior costotransverse ligament. A band of fibers, the lumbocostal ligament, in series with the anterior costotransverse ligaments, connects the neck of the twelfth rib to the base of the transverse process of the first lumbar vertebra; it is merely a thickened portion of the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia.


FIG. 314– Section of the costotransverse joints from the third to the ninth inclusive. Constrast the concave facets on the upper with the flattened facets on the lower transverse processes. (See enlarged image)


The Posterior Costotransverse Ligament (ligamentum costotransversarium posterius).—The posterior costotransverse ligament is a feeble band which is attached below to the neck of the rib and passes upward and medialward to the base of the transverse process and lateral border of the inferior articular process of the vertebra above.

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