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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
 
6d. 3. The Phalanges of the Foot
 
  
(Phalanges Digitorum Pedis)


The phalanges of the foot correspond, in number and general arrangement, with those of the hand; there are two in the great toe, and three in each of the other toes. They differ from them, however, in their size, the bodies being much reduced in length, and, especially in the first row, laterally compressed.

First Row.—The body of each is compressed from side to side, convex above, concave below. The base is concave; and the head presents a trochlear surface for articulation with the second phalanx.

Second Row.—The phalanges of the second row are remarkably small and short, but rather broader than those of the first row.
  The ungual phalanges, in form, resemble those of the fingers; but they are smaller and are flattened from above downward; each presents a broad base for articulation with the corresponding bone of the second row, and an expanded distal extremity for the support of the nail and end of the toe.


FIG. 289– Plan of ossification of the foot. (See enlarged image)


Articulations.—In the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes the phalanges of the first row articulate behind with the metatarsal bones, and in front with the second phalanges, which in their turn articulate with the first and third: the ungual phalanges articulate with the second.

Ossification of the Bones of the Foot (Fig. 289).—The tarsal bones are each ossified from a single center, excepting the calcaneus, which has an epiphysis for its posterior extremity. The centers make their appearance in the following order: calcaneus at the sixth month of fetal life;

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