Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
downward and medialward, and transmitting the tendon of the Flexor hallucis longus. Lateral to the groove is a prominent tubercle, the posterior process, to which the posterior talofibular ligament is attached; this process is sometimes separated from the rest of the talus, and is then known as the os trigonum. Medial to the groove is a second smaller tubercle.
The Neck (collum tali).The neck is directed forward and medialward, and comprises the constricted portion of the bone between the body and the oval head. Its upper and medial surfaces are rough, for the attachment of ligaments; its lateral surface is concave and is continuous below with the deep groove for the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament.
The Head (caput tali).The head looks forward and medialward; its anterior articular or navicular surface is large, oval, and convex. Its inferior surface has two facets, which are best seen in the fresh condition. The medial, situated in front of the middle calcaneal facet, is convex, triangular, or semi-oval in shape, and rests on the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament; the lateral, named the anterior calcaneal articular surface, is somewhat flattened, and articulates with the facet on the upper surface of the anterior part of the calcaneus.
Articulations.The talus articulates with four bones: tibia, fibula, calcaneus, and navicular.
The Cuboid Bone (os cuboideum) (Figs. 274,275).The cuboid bone is placed on the lateral side of the foot, in front of the calcaneus, and behind the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. It is of a pyramidal shape, its base being directed medialward.
Surfaces.The dorsal surface, directed upward and lateralward, is rough, for the attachment of ligaments. The plantar surface presents in front a deep groove, the peroneal sulcus, which runs obliquely forward and medialward; it lodges the tendon of the Peronæus longus, and is bounded behind by a prominent ridge, to which the long plantar ligament is attached. The ridge ends laterally in an eminence, the tuberosity, the surface of which presents an oval facet; on this facet glides the sesamoid bone or cartilage frequently found in the tendon of the Peronæus longus. The surface of bone behind the groove is rough, for the attachment of the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament, a few fibers of the Flexor hallucis brevis, and a fasciculus from the tendon of the Tibialis posterior. The lateral surface presents a deep notch formed by the commencement of the peroneal sulcus. The posterior surface is smooth, triangular, and concavo-convex, for articulation with the anterior surface of the calcaneus; its infero-medial angle projects backward as a process which underlies and supports the anterior end of the calcaneus. The anterior surface, of smaller size, but also irregularly triangular, is divided by a vertical ridge into two facets: the medial, quadrilateral in form, articulates with the fourth metatarsal; the lateral, larger and more triangular, articulates with the fifth. The medial surface is broad, irregularly quadrilateral, and presents at its middle and upper part a smooth oval facet, for articulation with the third