Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
lodgement of the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament. In front and to the medial side of this groove is an elongated facet, concave from behind forward, and with its long axis directed forward and lateralward. This facet is frequently divided into two by a notch: of the two, the posterior, and larger is termed the middle articular surface; it is supported on a projecting process of bone, the sustentaculum tali, and articulates with the middle calcaneal facet on the under surface of the talus; the anterior articular surface is placed on the anterior part of the body, and articulates with the anterior calcaneal facet on the talus. The upper surface, anterior and lateral to the facets, is rough for the attachment of ligaments and for the origin of the Extensor digitorum brevis.
The inferior or plantar surface is uneven, wider behind than in front, and convex from side to side; it is bounded posteriorly by a transverse elevation, the calcaneal tuberosity, which is depressed in the middle and prolonged at either end into a process; the lateral process, small, prominent, and rounded, gives origin to part of the Abductor digiti quinti; the medial process, broader and larger, gives attachment, by its prominent medial margin, to the Abductor hallucis, and in front to the Flexor digitorum brevis and the plantar aponeurosis; the depression between the processes gives origin to the Abductor digiti quinti. The rough surface in front of the processes gives attachment to the long plantar ligament, and to the lateral head of the Quadratus plantæ while to a prominent tubercle nearer the anterior part of this surface, as well as to a transverse groove in front of the tubercle, is attached the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament.
The lateral surface is broad behind and narrow in front, flat and almost subcutaneous; near its center is a tubercle, for the attachment of the calcaneofibular ligament. At its upper and anterior part, this surface gives attachment to the lateral talocalcaneal ligament; and in front of the tubercle it presents a narrow surface marked by two oblique grooves. The grooves are separated by an elevated ridge, or tubercle, the trochlear process (peroneal tubercle), which varies much in size in different bones. The superior groove transmits the tendon of the Peronæus brevis; the inferior groove, that of the Peronæus longus.
The medial surface is deeply concave; it is directed obliquely downward and forward, and serves for the transmission of the plantar vessels and nerves into the sole of the foot; it affords origin to part of the Quadratus plantæ. At its upper and forepart is a horizontal eminence, the sustentaculum tali, which gives attachment to a slip of the tendon of the Tibialis posterior. This eminence is concave above, and articulates with the middle calcaneal articular surface of the talus; below, it is grooved for the tendon of the Flexor hallucis longus; its anterior margin gives attachment to the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, and its medial, to a part of the deltoid ligament of the ankle-joint.
The anterior or cuboid articular surface is of a somewhat triangular form. It is concave from above downward and lateralward, and convex in a direction at right angles to this. Its medial border gives attachment to the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament.
The posterior surface is prominent, convex, wider below than above, and divisible into three areas. The lowest of these is rough, and covered by the fatty and fibrous tissue of the heel; the middle, also rough, gives insertion to the tendo calcaneus and Plantaris; while the highest is smooth, and is covered by a bursa which intervenes between it and the tendo calcaneus.
Articulations.The calcaneus articulates with two bones: the talus and cuboid.
The Talus (astragalus; ankle bone) (Figs. 270to 273).The talus is the second largest of the tarsal bones. It occupies the middle and upper part of the tarsus, supporting the tibia above, resting upon the calcaneus below, articulating on either side with the malleoli, and in front with the navicular. It consists of a body, a neck, and a head