Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
articular facet of the lateral malleolus. It serves for the attachment of the interosseous membrane, which separates the Extensor muscles in front from the Flexor muscles behind.
The postero-lateral border is prominent; it begins above at the apex, and ends below in the posterior border of the lateral malleolus. It is directed lateralward above, backward in the middle of its course, backward, and a little medialward below, and gives attachment to an aponeurosis which separates the Peronæi on the lateral surface from the Flexor muscles on the posterior surface.
The postero-medial border, sometimes called the oblique line, begins above at the medial side of the head, and ends by becoming continuous with the interosseous crest at the lower fourth of the bone. It is well-marked and prominent at the upper and middle parts of the bone. It gives attachment to an aponeurosis which separates the Tibialis posterior from the Soleus and Flexor hallucis longus.
Surfaces.The anterior surface is the interval between the antero-lateral and antero-medial borders. It is extremely narrow and flat in the upper third of its extent; broader and grooved longitudinally in its lower third; it serves for the origin of three muscles: the Extensor digitorum longus, Extensor hallucis longus, and Peronæus tertius.
The posterior surface is the space included between the postero-lateral and the postero-medial borders; it is continuous below with the triangular area above the articular surface of the lateral malleolus; it is directed backward above, backward and medialward at its middle, directly medialward below. Its upper third is rough, for the origin of the Soleus; its lower part presents a triangular surface, connected to the tibia by a strong interosseous ligament; the intervening part of the surface is covered by the fibers of origin of the Flexor hallucis longus. Near the middle of this surface is the nutrient foramen, which is directed downward.
The medial surface is the interval included between the antero-medial and the postero-medial borders. It is grooved for the origin of the Tibialis posterior.